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Западноевропейское искусство от Джотто до Рембрандта

 Тексты настоящего пособия охватывают пять веков западноевропейской живописи от Джотто до Рембрандта. Это дает возможность обучаемым приобрести не только лингвистические знания, усвоив обширный лексический материал, но и культурологические, поскольку последовательный хронологический переход текстов от одного художника к другому позволяет создать более или менее целостную картину развития западноевропейской искусства с XIII по XVII вв. Система упражнений направлена на усвоение лексического материала и развитие навыков устной речи.

Данная книга является первой частью цикла учебных пособий для изучающих английский язык и предназначена для студентов-искусствоведов, учащихся классических гимназий, лицеистов и всех интересующихся искусством.


Настоящее пособие состоит из 16 уроков, включающих тексты и упражнения. Материалом данного пособия послужили оригинальные тексты англоязычных искусствоведов. Тематика текстов охватывает пять веков западноевропейской живописи от Джотто до Рембрандта. Это позволяет обучаемым нс только усвоить чрезвычайно обширный лексический пласт «языка искусствоведов», но и создать общее представление об истории западноевропейского искусства.

Объем пособия не позволяет остановиться на всех художниках, которые внесли вклад в мировую сокровищницу живописи. В пособии представлены тексты, посвященные крупнейшим европейским мастерам, работы которых оказали большое влияние на развитие всемирного искусства. Пособие составлено таким образом, что дает возможность обучаемым проследить ход развития западноевропейской живописи с конца XIII века до середины XVII века. Каждый урок состоит из текста, в котором кратко излагаются основные этапы жизни и творчества художника, анализируются его наиболее значительные произведения, а также упражнений, позволяющих проверить как общее понимание прочитанного, так и закрепить только что приобретенный лексический материал. Для облегчения работы с пособием прилагается словарь.

Предлагаемые в данном пособии тексты являются оригинальными, с незначительными сокращениями. Пособие может быть использовано не только студентами-искусствоведами, но и самым широким кругом читателей, интересующихся историей западноевропейской живописи.

Unit I Giotto (c.1267-1337)

The final break with the Byzantine tradition was accomplished by Giotto di Bondone. He was the first giant in the long history of Italian painting; he was a painter, a sculptor and an architect. Now Giotto is regarded as the father of modern painting, but even in his own day Giotto's greatness was recognized by his contemporaries. They listed him as one of the great men of the Florentine Republic, called him the pupil of Nature and said that Giotto revived the art of painting which had declined in Italy because of many invasions.

Giotto's masterpiece is the cycle of frescoes, dating from 1305-1306, illustrating the life of the Virgin and the life of Christ, that lines the interior of the Arena Chapel in Padua. The Redemption of man is the subject, and Jesus and Mary are the protagonists. The two side walls are covered with frescoes on panels arranged in three layers. Giotto painted the Vices on the north wall, and the Virtues on the south wall.

In one of the early scenes, Joachim among the Shepherds, Joachim, father of the Virgin, takes refuge with shepherds in the wilderness after his expulsion from the Temple. Humiliated, his head bowed, he stands before two shepherds, one of whom scans his companion's face to see whether they dare to receive the outcast. The dog, the symbol of fidelity leaps in joyful greeting. Giotto accepted one scale for the figures and another for the surroundings including the animals and the sheepfold. For all his ability to project three-dimensional forms, Giotto is far from having the notion of visual unity. His landscape has an expressive purpose. The cubic rocks form a definite stage in space limited by the blue background. It does not represent the sky; it is an ideal heavenly colour that continues behind all the scenes. In order to emphasize the three-dimensionality of Joachims's figure, Giotto has designed his halo foreshortened in perspective.

Giotto's Madonna and Child Enthroned, of about 1310, is a ceremonial representation of the Virgin as Queen of Heaven. The distant space is ruled out by the traditional background. Giotto introduced light and inward extension in a direct and convincing manner. He placed the throne above a marble step and the Virgin sits firmly within it. The angels kneeling in the foreground are solid. The angels and saints firmly stand on either side of the throne. Light without indication of source, models the forms so heavily that they resemble sculptural masses. Giotto's miracle lay in his ability to produce for the first time on a flat surface three-dimensional forms. Giotto's facial types and drapery motives recall Gothic sculptures.

In the Raising of Lazarus the composition divides into two groups: one centred around Lazarus, who has just risen from the tomb and is still wrapped in graveclothes is read together with the rock; the other beginning with prostrate Mary and Martha, culminates in Christ, who calls the dead man forth by a single gesture of his right hand against the blue. The calm authority is contrasted with the astonishment of the surrounding figures.

In the Lamentation Giotto has enriched the dialogue between life and death. Instead of burst of grief he has staged a tragedy. The figures grieve in the manner possible to their individual personalities. Giotto added to the scene mourners who turn their backs to the spectators; one upholds Christ's head, the other – his right hand. Mary with one arm around Christ's shoulder searches his countenance. Only the angels can cry in pure grief, each half-hidden in clouds to show that they are supernatural. In this scene Giotto's brushwork is as calm as in the other. He achieved this effect not only by the arrangement of figures but also by the diagonal line of the rock, descending toward the faces of Mary and Christ. At the upper right, as if to typify the desolation of the scene a bare tree stands against the blue. Giotto expected his observers to remember that in accordance with the medieval legend, the Tree of Knowledge was withered after the sin of Adam and Eve and made fruitful again after the sacrifice of Christ.

Make sure you know how to pronounce thefallowing words:

Giotto; Jesus Christ; Mary; Madonna; Virgin; Martha; fresco ['freskou]; Adam; Eve; Arena Chapel;

Byzantine; Padua; Florentine; Lazarus; Redemption; recognise; layer; contemporaries; shepherd;

masterpiece; perspective; accomplish; medieval; wilderness; sacrifice; expulsion; angels; surface.


Joachim among the Shepherds – «Встреча Иоакима с пастухами»

Raising of Lazarus – «Воскрешение Лазаря»

Lamentation – «Оплакивание»

Madonna and Child Enthroned – «Величание» («Маеста» из Оньиссанти)

Redemption – Искупление Грехов

The Vices and the Virtues – Грехи и Добродетели

protagonist – главный герой

Joachim – Иоаким


I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. Giotto's greatness is recognized only today.

2. Giotto produced cubic forms on a flat surface.

3. Jesus and Mary are the protagonists of Giotto's frescoes.

4. In Giotto's frescoes the figures float through the heavens.

5. The composition is centred around Lazarus.

6. In the Lamentation to typify the desolation of the scene Giotto depicted a bare tree against the blue background.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. How was Giotto characterized by his contemporaries?

2. What did Giotto represent in the frescoes that line the interior of the Arena Chapel in Padua? What is the subject of these frecoes?

3. What did Giotto introduce in his works of art?

4. What is depicted in one of Giotto's earliest frescoes? What device did Giotto use to emphasize the three-dimensionality of Joackim's figure? What scale did he recognize for the figures and for the surroundings?

5. How did Giotto represent the figures in the Madonna and Child Enthroned? How did Giotto depict the throne? How is the background painted? What models the form in the Madonna andChild Enthroned? What do Giotto's figures resemble?

6. What is represented in the Raising of Lazarus? What groups are distinguished in the fresco? How are they arranged? How did Giotto show the perspective in this fresco?

7. What does the Lamentation depict? How did Giotto group the grieving figures? What medieval legend is connected with the Tree of Knowledge?

III. I Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

to be recognized by the contemporaries; protagonist; ceremonial representation; to revive the art of painting; a cycle of frescoes; to line the interior; in the wilderness; to arrange frescoes in three layers; to cover walls with frescoes; to fresco the walls; to form a definite stage in space; frescoes on panels; cubic rocks; three-dimensional forms; a limited space; wrapped in graveclothes; according to the medieval legend; against the blue background; an ideal heavenly colour; Queen of Heaven; to take shelter; firmly stand; to recognize one scale for the figures and another for the surroundings; master's masterpiece; the miracle lies in; light without indication of source; to produce for the first time; to design a halo; to introduce light and inward extension; to group the figures; to resemble sculptural masses; foreshortened in perspective; visual unity; to rule out the distant space; to add mourners; in the foreground; in the background; facial types; to receive an outcast; brushwork; Redemption; Tree of Knowledge; a withered tree; the sin of Adam and Eve; shepherds and sheepfold; on a flat surface.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

Искупление грехов; расписывать стены фресками; тип лица; впервые изобразить; Грехи и Добродетели; на фоне голубого неба; мазки остаются спокойными; признанный современниками; напоминать готические скульптуры; шедевр великого художника; на плоской поверхности; ввести свет и внутреннее пространство; образовать определенную ступень в пространстве; ограниченное пространство; главный герой; роспись на доске; парадное изображение; на одной из первых сцен; подчеркнуть объемность форм; небесно голубой цвет; исключить глубинное пространство; на переднем плане; цикл фресок; принять изгоя; засохшее дерево; пастухи; овчарня; дописать плакальщиц; передать пространство; грех Адама и Евы; зрительное единство; изобразить нимб; сгруппировать фигуры; расположить фрески в три ряда; жертвоприношение; укороченный в перспективе; свет без указания источника.

III. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

IV. Translate the following groups of words into Russian:

accomplish – accomplished; paint – painter – painting; revive -revival – revived; illustrate – illustrator – illustration; arrange – arrangement; face – facial – faceless; space – spatial – spaceless; surround – surroundings; three-dimension – three-dimensional – three-dimensionality; ceremony – ceremonial – ceremonialism.

V. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) to accomplish; flat; extension; to represent; observer; heaven; to design; three-dimensional; perspective; to produce; to line;

b) spectator; to show, to picture, to present, to portray, to depict; panorama; to create; to finish; to cover; sky, paradise; to draw; cubic, solid; prostrate; prolongation.

VI. Arrange the following in the pairs of antonyms:

a) to accept; to accomplish; to rule out; three-dimensional; to produce; to recall; to decline;

b) flat; to revive; to forget; to include; to reject; to start; to break.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Giotto's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.

1. The angels and saints firmly stand on either side of the throne.

2. The man wrapped in graveclothes is read together with the rock.

3. Humiliated, his head bowed, he stands between two shepherds.

4. The persons grieve in the manner possible to their individual personalities.

a. Lamentation

b. Raising of Lazarus

c. Joachim among the Shepherds

d. Madonna and Child Enthroned

V. Translate the text into English.

Конец XIII – начало Xiv вв. в европейской живописи знаменуется переходом от условных традиций средневековья к реалистическим традициям эпохи Возрождения и связан с именем Джотто, который впервые ввел свет и внутреннее пространство. Композиции Джотто просты. В Капелле дель Арена в Падуе цикл фресок из 38 сцен на тему «Искупление Грехов», главными героями которых являются Христос и Мария, Джотто расположил в три ряда. Сюжеты из Евангелия художник представил как реальные события. Вместо условного золотого фона византийских мозаик Джотто ввел пейзажный фон. Он добился трехмерного пространства определенным расположением (arrangement) фигур на плоскости стены. В отличие от византийских фигур, висящих в пространстве, герои Джотто твердо стоят на ногах.

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Giotto's style and characters.

2. Giotto as the father of modern painting.

Unit II Masaccio (1401-1427/29)

The break between what had gone before and the new 15th century creative art of Florence is seen immediately in the Enthroned Madonna and Child by the short-lived Tommaso di Ser Giovanni known to his contemporaries as Masaccio who was, after Giotto, the next great founder-figure not only of Italian but of Western painting. This picture is a central panel of an altar-piece painted by Masaccio when he was twenty-five. Its revolutionary heroic realism can be paralleled only in the work of his friend, the sculptor Donatello, older than Masaccio but working in Florence at the same time. In spite of the Gothic pointed arches used for the panels and the golden background this is a Renaissance picture. Masaccio's Madonna and Child are a simple, sculpted group, as if blocked out from the same piece of stone, absorbed, archaic and unsmiling images. The throne on which they sit and on which the large monumental Madonna casts a shadow is solid and three-dimensional. The Child is realistically human and seriously divine. He takes grapes from his Mother as a solemn foretaste of the Passion.

Masaccio's innovations are visible in the frescoes he painted about 1425 in the Chapel of the Brancacci family in Florence. In his mid-twenties he revolutionised the art of painting. In the principle scene in the series the Tribute Money Masaccio created a new sense of actual masses existing in actual space. The subject recounts how when Christ and the Apostles arrived at Capernaum, the Roman tax-gatherer came to collect tribute. Christ told Peter he would find the tribute money in the mouth of a fish in the nearby Sea of Galilee. Peter cast for the fish, found the coin, and paid the tax-gatherer. The artist has arranged the Apostle figures in a semicircle around Christ, with the discovery of the money placed in the middle distance at the left and the payoff at the right. The Apostles are enveloped in cloaks. This gives them the grandeur of sculpture and a sense of existence in space. The Apostles' faces are painted with quick, soft strokes of the brush. Masaccio has performed a miracle almost without the use of line. Form is achieved by the impact of light on an object. In this picture Masaccio proved a simple maxim that 'Nothing is seen without light'. Unlike Giotto who had attempted to take the observer only a few yards back into the picture, where he immediately encountered the flat, blue wall, Masaccio leads the eye into the distance, over the shore of Galilee, past half-dead trees to the range of far-off mountains, and eventually to the sky with its floating clouds. And while Giotto'sought for the best means of telling the story selected as the subject, Masaccio sought a fitting incident which as a theme, would enable him to depict the characters he chose to represent.

On the narrow entrance wall to the chapel Masaccio painted his vision of the ExpulsionfromEden. In this fresco the clothed angel floats above, sword in one hand, the other hand points into a desolate and treeless world. Adam's powerful body is shaking with sobs; he covers his face with his hands in a paroxysm of guilt and grief. Eve covers her nakedness with her hands, but lifts up her face in a scream of pain. Masaccio's drawing of the human figures and faces is masterly. Never before the nude figures had been painted with such breadth and ease; and the man's separation from God had never before been represented with such tragic intensity.

Masaccio made a great advance in both linear and aerial perspective; his figures were placed firmly on different planes in the same composition. Masaccio's style was characterised by his contemporaries as «pure, without ornament». By the fifteenth century the Brancacci Chapel had become the place where young artists including Michelangelo, went to learn from Masaccio – the basic principles of form, space, light, and shade of the Renaissance painting.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Masaccio; Renaissance; Donatello; Florence; Apostles; Galilee; Capernaum; Milan; Eden; archaic; paroxysm


Tribute Money – «Чудо со статиром»(«Подать»)

Expvlsionfrom Eden – «Изгнание из Рая»

Enthroned Madonna and Child – «Мадонна с Младенцем на Престоле»

the Passion – Страсти Господни


I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. Masaccio was the first founder-figure of Italian painting.

2. 'Nothing is seen without light' was Giotto's maxim.

3. Masaccio created a new sense of supernatural reality.

4. Late life Masaccio revolutionised the art of painting.

5. In a paroxysm of guilt and grief Eve covers her face.

6. The Arena Chapel became the place where young artists studied the basic principles of the Renaissance painting.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. What did Masaccio paint at the age of twenty-five?

2. How did Masaccio develop Giotto's innovations? What miracle did Masaccio perform?

3. Is the Enthroned Madonna and Child a Gothic or Renaissance picture? Why?

4. What does the subject of the Tribute Money recount? How did Masaccio group the figures?

5. What differs the Masaccio from the Giotto? How far did Masaccio take the observer into his painting the Tribute Money?

6. What is represented in the Expulsion from Eden? How did Masaccio picture man's separation from God?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

Gothic pointed arches; light and shade; a central panel of an altarpiece; the grandeur of sculpture; the Passion; to take the observer a few yards back in the picture; in the principle scene; a sense of actual masses existing in actual space; the subject recounts; sculpted group; a tax-gatherer; to cast for the fish; to perform a miracle; on the entrance wall to the chapel; the impact of light on an object; to float above: payoff; to render the event; a simple maxim; in a paroxysm of guilt and grief; to cover the face with the hands; to lift up the face; to paint with breadth and ease.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

изобразительное искусство; центральная часть алтарного образа; влияние света на предмет; величие скульптуры; над входом в капеллу; сюжет повествует; сотворить чудо; скульптурная группа; готические стрельчатые арки; ощущение естественности среды, в которой пребывают герои; парить над; сотрясаться от рыданий; принципы пространства и светотени; оплата; передать событие; бросить невод; писать размашисто и легко; закрыть лицо руками; мытарь; в приступе вины и горя; простая истина; провести зрителя на несколько метров вглубь картины.

III. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

IV. Translate the following groups of words into Russian:

create – creator – creative – creativity – creature; found – founder – foundation; sculpture – sculptor – sculptural – sculptured; revolution – revolutionary – revolutionise – revolutionist; image -imaginary – imagination – imaginative; real – reality – realism – realistic; sacrifice – sacrificial.

V. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) immediately; to recount; short-lived; impact; power; to connect; to perform; desolate; central; monumental; to cast; basic;

b) principal; influence; massive; to tell; at once; to link; to do;

authority; brief; barren; fundamental; to throw.

VI. Arrange the following in the pairs of antonyms:

a) central; large; giant; short-lived; separate; create;

b) dwarf; peripheral; little, small; unite; break; long-lived.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Masaccio 's works of art. Match them up to the given titles…

1. The painting depicts archaic, unsmiling sculpted images.

2. The artist has arranged the Apostle figures around Christ.

3. The man's separation from God is shown as a tragedy.

a. Tribute Money

b. Expulsion from Eden

c. Madonna and Child Enthroned

V. Translate the text into English.

Мазаччо, выдающийся флорентийский художник, решил проблемы живописи, поставленные Джотто. В главных сценах росписи в капелле Бранкаччи – «Чудо со статиром» и «Изгнание из Рая» Мазаччо показал как помещать фигуры в пространстве. В «Изгнании из Рая» мощное тело Адама сотрясается от рыданий, в приступе вины и горя он от стыда закрыл лицо руками; Ева рыдает, запрокинув в отчаянии голову. В сцене «Чудо со статиром» Мазаччо объединил три сюжета: Христос с учениками у ворот, которых остановил сборщик налогов, – центральная композиция; Петр, по велению Христа забросивший невод, – композиция слева; сцена выплаты подати – справа. Сцены, соединенные на одной плоскости, написаны с учетом линейной и воздушной перспективы (linear perspective and aerial perspective). В отличие от Джотто, который уводит взгляд зрителя только на несколько шагов вглубь картины, Мазаччо образует глубинное пространство, проводя взгляд зрителя над берегами Моря Галилейского, полузасохшими деревьями, к хребту далеких гор, и, наконец, к небу. Благодаря фрескам Мазаччо церковь Санта Мария дель Кармине превратилась в своеобразную академию, где учились многие художники.

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Masaccio's artistic heritage.

2. Masaccio's impact on art development.

Unit III Mantegna (1431-1506)

Andrea Mantegna was the first major north Italian artist to experience the full force of the Florentine Renaissance. In 1454, the year of Donatello's departure from Padua, Mantegna began, with several older artists, a series of frescoes in the Chapel of the Overati family in Padua. He finished the frescoes himself in 1457 when he was twenty six years old.

The air-raid on March 11, 1944 completely destroyed the chapel containing Mantegna's early works. Only two of the frescoed panels on the lower part of the right wall were saved the Martyrdom and the Burial of St. Christopher, and the Assumption in the apse. Almost all the colour is gone from the two frescoes the Martyrdom and the Burial of St. Christopher, but one can still detect the novelty of the background perspective. In the middle of the cove of the apse, the Virgin Mary disappears behind a high archway lifted up towards the sky in all her physical presence. We follow her as she rises slowly along with the Apostles who stand below against the sides of the arch. The upturned face seen from below with the eyes raised is extremely beautiful.

The few small fragments of the Martyrdom of St. James (1454-56) collected from the pile of ruins and put together in a photomontage have been placed on the left wall. The photo-montage of the Martyrdom of St. James demonstrates the high level of perfection achieved by the young Mantegna in rendering the three-dimensional illusion.

Saint James Led to Execution is a triumph of Renaissance spatial construction and Renaissance Classicism. The perspective is calculated for the eye level of a person of average height standing on the floor below. The effect of figures moving in an actual space is startling. The ground disappears and the figures recede. Within Mantegna's carefully constructed space, the figures look like animated statues, carved rather than painted. But their marmoreal hardness only intensifies the drama. James on the way to martyrdom, turns to bless a kneeling Christian who has broken through the Roman guards. The movements of the figures, the gentleness of the saint, and the emotion of the moment are as severely controlled as the perspective.

In 1474 Mantegna finished the frescoes for the castle of the Gonzaga family, marquises of the principality of Mantua. The Gonzaga frescoes are continuous around two sides and over the vaulted ceiling of a square chamber. They present scenes from contemporary court life. The frescoes have been painted in such a way that the fireplace and other architectural elements of the room are incorporated into the composition. The scene with the family surrounding the ruler and his wife, which is painted over the fireplace, appears to have the figures actually standing and seated upon the mantelpiece, and the leather curtains which were part of the original hangings of the room are echoed in the painted curtains that close off some scenes. In one fresco Francisco Gonzaga is greeted by his father, the marquis, and by the bishop of Mantua, other dignitaries and some charming children on his return from Rome, where he had been made a cardinal. The background is not Mantua, but an ideal Italian city on a hill, the circular walls are seen in perspective. Outside them can be seen Roman ruins and statues. The colouring was undoubtedly more brilliant before certain portions peeled off in the course of time.

The centre of the ceiling is Mantegna's most astonishing perspective prank. We seem to be looking up into a circular parapet as up through the mouth of a well, above which are sky and clouds. Winged children clinging to the parapet are seen in sharp perspective from front and rear, and across one end runs a pole, which if it rolled a bit, would allow a large tub of plants to fall on our heads. Ladies-in-waiting, including one black servant, peer over the edge, smiling at our discomfiture. With this odd beginning commences the long series of illusionistic ceiling and dome paintings that continued for three centuries and spread from Italy throughout Europe.

In the long bas-relief-like painting the Introduction of the Cult of Cybele into Rome Mantegna reveals his sculptural tendencies and grave attitude to classical antiquity. His figures take on the rigidity of stone. The Madonna and Child with Magdalen and S. John the Baptist Mantegna painted with a simulated marble framing. As through a window the observer meant to look at these statue-like figures whose draperies fall into heavy folds.

Late in life Mantegna painted the Dead Christ on canvas and in scurto (extreme foreshortening), intended not as a trick in this case but as a device to bring home to the observer the personal meaning for him of Christ's sacrificial death. The weeping Mary and John are likely later additions.

Mantegna was a printmaker. Seven engravings by his hand and many by his followers established a graphic art tradition in the late fifteenth century in northern Italy.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Mantegna; Mantua; marquis, burial; martyrdom; montage; castle; Cybele


Saint James Led to Execution – «Шествие Святого Иакова на казнь»

Martyrdom of St James – «Мученичество Святого Иакова»

Burial of St. Christopher – Перемещение тела Святого Христофора»

Assumption – «Вознесение Марии»

Dead Christ – «Мертвый Христос»

Introduction of the Cult ofCybele into Rome – «Учреждение культа Кибелы в Риме»

Madonna and Child with Magdalen and S. John the Baptist – «Мадонна с Младенцем, Магдалиной и Святым Иоанном Крестителем»

Crucifixion – «Распятие»


I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. In 1454 Mantegna alone began a series of frescoes.

2. In 1944 all Mantegna's frescoes were destroyed.

3. Mantegna initiated illusionistic ceiling paintings.

4. A simulated marble framing is Masaccio's innovation.

5. The Crucifixion is a long bas-relief-like picture.

6. Mantegna painted the Dead Christ on panel.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the questions?

1. Where did Mantegna paint a series of frescoes in 1454? What frescoes survived? What does the photo-montage show?

2. What is represented in Assumptions?

3. What is a triumph of Renaissance spatial construction? What do the figures in this painting recall? Where did Mantegna place the observer? What effect did he achieve by this device?

4. What frescoes did Mantegna finish in 1474? What is depicted there? What was Mantegna's prank? What does it picture?

5. What did Mantegna introduce in the Madonna and Child with Magdalen and S. John the Baptist? How did the observer mean to look at the figures? What were Mantegna's innovations?

6. What device did Mantegna use in the Dead Christ? Why?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

the cove of the apse; a background perspective; statue-like figures; early works; simulated marble framing; in the apse; heavy folds; vaulted ceiling; the figures recede; the emotion of the moment; a device; to render the three-dimensional illusion; to spread throughout Europe; marmoreal hardness; a bishop; ladies-in-waiting; a long bas-relief-like picture; animated statues; martyrdom; a prank; in perspective; sculptural tendencies; to peel off; to peer over the edge; to bring home to the observer; to bless.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

в центре конхи; ожившие статуи; мученичество; в конхе апсиды; княжество; мраморная тяжесть; вытянутая, напоминающая барельеф картина; скульптурные тенденции; нарисованная мраморная рама; фигуры, похожие на статуи; донести до зрителя; передать объем; фрейлины; придворная жизнь; распространиться по всей Европе; фоновая перспектива; сводчатый потолок; забавная шутка; выглядывать из-за перил; потолочная роспись.

III. Make up sentences ofyour own with the given phrases.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Mantegna's works of art.

Match them up to the given titles…

1. This fresco is a triumph of Renaissance Classicism.

2. The Apostles stand below against the sides of the arch.

3. The frescoes represent scenes from contemporary court life.

4. Mantegna painted Christ foreshortened.

5. It is noted for the novelty of its background perspective.

6. It demonstrates Mantegna's high level of perfection.

a. Dead Christ

b. Burial of St. Christopher

c. Assumption

d. Martyrdom of St. James

e. Saint James Led to Execution

f. The Gonzaga frescoes

V. Translate the text into English.

Андреа Мантенья, крупнейший художник-монументалист падуанской школы. В своих работах он любил изображать античные памятники и развалины. В капелле Оверати Мантенья изобразил историю Св. Иакова, как реальное событие. По заказу мантуанских правителей Мантенья расписал одну из комнат дворца. Художник представил семейный портрет Гонзаго и сцены из придворной жизни Мантуи. Фреска плафона, изображающая в самом центре свода круглую галерею с людьми, смотрящими сквозь перила, является первой иллюзионистической декорацией в западноевропейском искусстве. Именно с нее начинается многовековая традиция потолочной росписи в Европе.

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Mantegna's style and characters.

2. Mantegna's artistic innovations.

Unit IV Botticelli (1445-1510)

Among the painters of the poetic current in the late fifteenth century, Sandro Botticelli stands alone in depth of feeling and delicacy of style. His concentration on line is so deep and his research into the unreal is so enchanting, that it is difficult to believe that he studied with Filippo Lippi, a follower of Masaccio. Although aloof from scientific current and criticized by the young Leonardo da Vinci Botticelli remained the leading painter resident in Florence in the 1480s and 1490s. Before him the old masters had drawn the inspiration for their works from the Bible. Botticelli delighted in myths, fables, and poetry, his nature was imaginative. The artist was the first to make his painting a means for the delight of the secular as well as the religious world.

Botticelli was closely associated with the Medici and his fortune paralleled theirs. After the death of Lorenzo, that ended the world in which Botticelli had found honours and fame, the painter was greatly impressed by the preaching of Savonarola. Soon he became an ardent disciple of this great prophet. When Savonarola demanded that bonfires should be made of the «profane pictures», he contributed many of his works of art to the bonfire pile. In his later life Botticelli turned to a religious style, and after 1500 gave up painting altogether.

Botticelli's most celebrated pictures, the Primavera (The Allegory of Spring) and the Birth of Venus were painted at a slight distance from each other in time, the first on panel, the second on canvas. Later the two paintings were considered companion pieces. Both have been interpreted in different ways. The Primavera with its ambiguous but clear meaning, is far from being the simple pagan mythology that it appears to be at first sight. No explanation of the Primavera is wholly successful. Probably the Primavera symbolizes Lorenzo Medici's real wedding in 1482.

A Christianized Venus, modestly dressed and resembling Botticelli's Madonnas, reigns in the midst of a dark grove of trees bearing golden fruit. At the right Zephyrus, the wind-god, pursues the nymph Chloris; flowers issue from her mouth. She is transformed into the goddess Flora, clothed in a flower-covered gown, from its folds she strews blossoms upon the lawn. At the left Mercury is dispelling tiny clouds from the golden apple, the symbol of the Medici family. Between Mercury and Venus the Three Graces dance in a ring. These lovely creatures are shown in transparent garments. This painting is a complex allegory. As in all Botticelli's mature works his figures are extremely attenuated, with long necks, torsos, arms and sloping shoulders. Their beautiful faces and graceful bodies and limbs seem almost bloodless and weightless, their white feet touch the ground so lightly that not a flower or a leaf is bent. The individual forms are perfectly modelled. Botticelli's representation of figures in motion is far beyond anything that preceded him and has never been excelled. The composition is based on an interweaving of linear patterns, drapery folds, streaming or braided hair, trunks, and leaves. Such a picture, both in content and style, represents a withdrawal from naturalism of the Early Florentine Renaissance.

The Birth of Venus may show the effects of Botticelli's residence in Rome in the early 1480s. Venus, according to the ancient myth, was born from the sea. Upon a sea represented without concern for space, and dotted with little V-shaped marks for waves, Botticelli's Venus stands lightly in a beautiful cockleshell, wafted by two embracing wind-gods, toward a highly stylized shore. This Venus, proportioned like the Three Graces, differs from the splendid Venuses of classical antiquity. She uses the curving streams of her long hair to cover her nakedness. She can't wait for the cloak that one of the Hours is about to spread around her. Botticelli's allegory is related to the Christian tradition with which he tried to reconcile the pagan legend. The composition has been compared to medieval and Renaissance representations of the Baptism of Christ. It may be argued that this is a rather artificial interpretation, but it is an interpretation that made sense to the fifteenth century.

Later, under the impact of Savonarola's preaching and the troubles besetting Italy Botticelli's imagery becomes less esoteric and more Christian. The best possible example is the Mystic Nativity. In order to emphasize the importance of the Madonna and Child and the relative unimportance of the humans, Botticelli has reverted to the early medieval device of disregarding scale and perspective and grading the actual sizes of the figures according to their importance; hence the Madonna is far the largest although placed apparently in the middle distance. The feature that links Botticelli most firmly with the Florentine artistic heritage is his linear perspective.

The unreality of Botticelli is a blind alley in the development of Renaissance painting, the brilliance and beauty of his line are not, and it may have influenced the pictorial style of Michelangelo.

Make sure you know the pronunciation of the following:

Sandro Botticelli; Florence; Flora; Graces; Hours; Savonarola; Renaissance; Venus; Christian; Zephyms; Chloris; Mercury


Primavera (The Allegory of Spring) – «Весна»

Birth of Venus – «Рождение Венеры»

Baptism of Christ – Крещение Христа

Mystic Nativity – «Мистическое Рождество»


I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. Botticelli's contemporaries admired his works of art.

2. In the Primavera Christianized Venus reigns on Olympus.

3. Flora, Mercury and Zephyrus dance in a ring.

4. Botticelli's figures are extremely attenuated.

5. In the Birth of Venus Botticelli depicted the sea as a seascape painter.

6. Later in life Botticelli's imagery becomes more esoteric and less Christian.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. What glorified Botticelli? What other painters are mentioned in this text? How were they connected with Botticelli?

2. What impact did Savonarola's preaching make on Botticelli?

3. What are Botticelli's most celebrated pictures? How are they interpreted?

4. What gods and goddesses are pictured in the Primavera? What do they do? What is Botticelli's allegory related to?

5. What is represented in the Birth of Venus? What gods are depicted in this painting? What do they do? Where is Venus placed? How is Venus proportioned? What differs Botticelli's Venus from the splendid Venuses of classical antiquity? What did Botticelli try to reconcile in the Birth of Venus?

6. What does the Mystic Nativity exemplify? What device did Botticelli use to emphasize the importance of the Madonna and the Child?

7. Whose pictorial style did Botticelli influence?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

poetic (scientific) current; early in life; celebrated pictures; to give up painting; to pursue the nymph; to spread blossoms from the folds; sloping shoulders; a complex allegory; a mature work; on canvas; on panel; in the fresco; in the picture; companion pieces; lovely creatures; drapery folds; an interweaving of linear patterns; classical antiquity; to interpret in different ways; delicate faces; attenuated figures; to be aloof from; transparent garments; a withdrawal from naturalism; wafted to the shore by the wind-god; to reconcile a pagan legend with the Christian tradition; spread a cloak around Venus; to stand in the cockleshell; V-shaped marks for waves; to paint the sea without concern for space.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

ведущий художник; научное (романтическое) направление; парные работы; знаменитые картины; на холсте; на доске; на картине; на фреске; на рисунке; отход от натурализма; проповеди; разбрасывать цветы; примирить языческую легенду с христианской традицией; зрелая работа; прозрачные одежды; трактовать по-разному; легко касаться земли; перестать писать картины; стилизованный берег; галочки вместо волн; фигуры необыкновенно воздушны; преследовать нимфу; влекомая к берегу; легко стоять в раковине; утонченные лица; переплетение линий; последователь к-л.

III. Make up sentences ofyour own with the given phrases.

IV. Translate the following groups of words into Russian:

Christian – Christianize – Christianity – christianized; reconcile – reconciliation; baptism – Baptist – baptize; reside – residence -resident; preach – preaching – preacher; aloof- aloofness.

V. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) aloof; current; pagan; give up; to dispel; to strew; attenuated; transparent; transform; reconcile; pursue;

b) heathen; trend; distant; translucent; to disperse; to scatter; lengthy; abandon; to transfigure; chase; appease.

IV. Match the names of the gods and goddess with their responsibilities.

Venus (Aphrodite); The Three Graces; Mercury (Hermis); Zephyrus; The Hours (The Horae); Flora

1) the god of the west wind; 2) the goddess of flowering and blossoming plants, shown with a wreath of flowers in her hair; 3) goddesses of season, representing the different times of the year and of the day; 4) the goddess of beauty and love, she emerged from the sea-foam and the winds blew her to the coast of Cyprus; 5) the god of commerce and prophecy, the messenger of the gods and the bearer of the dead souls; 6) goddesses of grace and beauty, who appear in art.

V. Replace the expressions in italics in the following sentences with expressions from the text which have the same meaning.

1. Although Botticelli was not interested in science he was the leading local painter in Florence in the 1480s. 2. Savonarola's spiritual leadership had a great impact upon BotticellI. 3. After 1500 Botticelli abandoned painting at all. 4. Botticelli's most famous pieces are the Primavera and the Birth of Venus. 5. The two pictures were considered mate paintings. 6. At the left Mercury is dispersing small clouds from the golden fruit. 7. Botticelli's figures are very lengthy. 8. The Three Graces are depicted in translucent clothes. 9. Venus was blown to the coast of the sea by Zephyrus. 10. Botticelli endeavoured to appease the Christian tradition with the heathen legend.

VI. Match the names of gods and goddesses with the appropriate painting. Describe these works of art.

a. Venus

1. Primavera b. Flora

c. Zephyrus

d. Mercury

2. Birth of Venus e. The Three Graces

f. Hour

g. Chloris

VII. Translate the text into English.

Две наиболее прославленные картины Сандро Боттичелли «Весна» (ок. 1477-1478) и «Рождение Венеры» (ок. 1483-1484) находятся в галереи Уффици. Тема «Весны» трактуется неоднозначно. Одни считают, что на картине изображена в аллегорической форме свадьба Лоренцо Медичи, другие полагают, что картина навеяна поэзией. Боттичелли не разъясняет сюжет. В картине «Весна» в единую композицию соединены фигуры Весны, Мадонны, Меркурия, Трех Граций, нимфы. Зефира, которые изображены в чаще тенистой рощи. Лицо Весны, разбрасывающей из подола цветы, печально. В работе отчетливо видны все особенности письма Боттичелли: декоративность стиля, романтический характер образов, фантастический пейзаж, воздушные фигуры.

Боттичелли создал своеобразный женский тип: утонченные лица, удлиненные тела, покатые плечи. Фигуры кажутся бескровными и невесомыми, почти не касающимися земли. В картине «Рождение Венеры» Боттичелли изобразил прекрасную богиню. Рожденная из моря, под дуновением ветров в раковине Венера скользит по поверхности моря, написанного безотносительно пространства с галочками вместо волн, к чрезвычайно стилизованному берегу, на котором ее поджидает одна из Гор, готовая набросить на богиню плащ. Венера почти не касается раковины. Струящиеся волосы прикрывают ее наготу. В своих работах Боттичелли стремился примирить христианскую традицию с языческими мифами.

VIII. Summarize the text.

IX. Topics for discussion.

1. Botticelli as the precursor of the High Renaissance.

2. Savonarola's impact on BotticellI.

3. Botticelli's style and characters.


I. Read the text, retell it. Add whatever information you can. Here are some facts from the life of the gods of Olympus. But before reading the text learn the names of the gods.

Zeus – Зевс; Cronus – Крон; Rhea – Рея; Titans – Титаны; Tartarus – Тартар; Нега – Гера; Apollo – Аполлон; Muses – Музы; Artemis – Артемида; Hermis – Гермес; Aphrodite – Афродита; The Horae – Горы; Hephaestos – Гефест; Erinyes – Эйрена; Nike -Ника; Hebe – Геба; Ganymede – Ганимед; Themis – Фемида; Dike – Дике; Moirae – Мойры; Tyche – Тихэ

Zeus, the father of gods and humans, god of the sky, thunder and lightning reigns on Olympus. Zeus was the son of Cronus and Rhea. When he grew up he fought Cronus and the Titans and imprisoned his opponents in Tartarus. Zeus married Hera, and she became his lawful and perpetual wife. Countless gods and goddesses surround Zeus on Olympus. Among them are: Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Hermis, Athena and others. Athena was always Zeus' favourite. She was born fully armed and shouting her dreaded war cry from the top of Zeus' head, which Hephaestus, his lame son, split open with an axe. The beautiful Horae guard the entrance to high Olympus. The gods feast in the golden halls erected by Hephaestus. Zeus sits on his throne, on both sides of which stand two goddesses: Erinyes, the goddess of peace, and Zeus' permanent associate, winged Nike, the goddess of Victory. When Hera enters the festival hall, all the gods render honours to her. She is the patron goddess of the family and married women. During the feasts the gods are served by Zeus' daughter Hebe, the goddess of youthful beauty, and Zeus' favourite cupbearer, Ganymede, the son of Tros, the king of Troy. Hebe and Ganymede bring the gods and goddesses ambrosia and nectar. The Three Graces and Nine Muses entertain the gods with their songs and dances. At these feasts the gods decide all matters and determine the fate of the world and of men. From Mount Olympus Zeus decrees laws; and Themis, the goddess of justice, and Dike, the defender of justice and truth, help Zeus to guard them. The fate of men is determined by three merciless Fates (goddesses of Destiny) – the Moirae. Nobody can escape their fate – neither gods nor mortals. The first goddess of Fate spins the thread of life, the second determines its length, and the third cuts off the thread of life. Tyche, one more goddess of Destiny, is the goddess of happiness and prosperity. From the Horn of Plenty, that suckled the infant Zeus, she pours gifts on men and happy is he who meets Tyche on his life-path.

Unit V Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519)

The coming of the sixteenth century saw the rise of great artists in Italy – Raphael, Michelangelo and Leonardo da VincI. Their names have never lost their enormous fame.

High Renaissance style was founded by one of the most gifted individuals ever born. Leonardo da Vinci, who has always been famous because of the fantastic range of his genius, fulfilled the Renaissance ideal of the Universal Man. He was not only a great painter and sculptor, but also an outstanding architect, an inventor, an engineer, a musician, and the leading physicist, botanist, anatomist, geologist and geographer of his time.

Leonardo's fame as an artist is based on eighteen paintings that came down to us, some of them incomplete, some damaged as a result of his experimental techniques. Leonardo's art surpassed the achievements of his time. In an era when the continuing power of the Church competed in men's mind with the revived authority of Classical antiquity, for Leonardo there was no authority higher than that of an eye, which he characterized as «the window of the soul». When Leonardo began his campaign to modernize painting the artist was still a craftsman and a guild member; before the High Renaissance was over, a great master could live like a prince.

Leonardo da Vinci was born in Tuscany. By 1469 he was Verrocchio's apprentice. In Verrocchio's workshop Leonardo obtained the best education of his time.

The Adoration of the Magi is Leonardo's first masterpiece. It was commissioned in 1481 for a church outside Florence. It was, never carried any further than the monochrome underpaint Leonardo used the pyramidal composition. The groups are based on the actions of the component figures and dissolve as soon as they move. Leonardo did not know it, but this discovery was made in Greece in the 5-th century B. C. In this work Leonardo started with the moment of feeling, form came next.

The Madonna of the Rocks, of 1483, is one of the earliest and the most famous Leonardo's pictures. It was intended for the Oratory of the Immaculate Conception in Milan. The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception means that the Virgin was freed from the taint of the Original Sin. Leonardo has interpreted this doctrine dramatically. He represented Mary in the midst of a dark world of rock forms. In this strange rocky grotto, where the sun never seems to strike and the plants grow thick but colourless, the Christ Child manifests his Divinity as he blesses the infant St. John, himself taken under the Virgin's protection. And, like a prophecy of the Baptism of Christ by St. John in the Jordan, a river winds away among the pale peaks. This painting makes Leonardo a typical artist of the High Renaissance.

The Madonna and Saint Anna was designed in Florence in 1501 and completed many years later in Milan. It represents a revolutionary rethinking of the conventional theme of the Holy Family. Leonardo intertwined the figures to form a pyramidal composition. Leonardo makes the Virgin sit on her mother's lap and merges their bodies in such a way that their heads are like twin heads rising from a single trunk. S. Anna's head mirrors her daughter's image. The Virgin, as in traditional representations of this subject, is shown reaching for the Christ Child, who in his turn attempts to ride upon a lamb, the symbol of his sacrificial death. The background is one of the most impressive mountain pictures ever painted. Valleys, rocks and peaks diminish progressively into the bluish haze of the distance until they can no longer be distinguished.

Leonardo's power as an artist and thinker is evident in the Last Supper and the Mona Lisa, his two most famous works. Leonardo's Last Supper was painted on the end wall of the refectory of the Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan in 1495. In the fresco Christ discloses to his followers that soon one of their number will betray him and their cause. The composition is the product of the moment of action and meaning. The Apostles are presented in four groups of three each. Each of these numbers has many meanings: the multiplication of the Gospels by the Trinity is only one, and twelve itself is not merely the number of the Apostles but of the months of the year and the hours of the day and of the night. The numerical division helps to throw the fundamental character of each of the Apostles into full relief, from the innocence of John on Christ's right to the horror of James on his left and to the protestation of Philip, who placed his hand on his breast. Only Judas knows, and the light does not shine upon his face. The Last Supper is a humanistic interpretation of the narrative. Leonardo has painted a higher reality, thus making a complete break with the Early Renaissance and establishing the ideal world in which Michelangelo and Raphael later operated. Leonardo painted his masterpiece in an oil-and-tempera emulsion on the dry plaster, and it began rapidly to peel off. As a result the surface is severely damaged.

Although Leonardo's paintings are badly preserved, they are all fascinating. Leonardo created an enigma to which he gives no answer.

From 1503 until 1506 Leonardo was painting a portrait of the wife of the prominent Florentine citizen. The painting is known today as the Mona Lisa. The figure sits in a relaxed position, with hands quietly crossed, before one of Leonardo's richest and most mysterious landscape backgrounds, traversed by roads that lose themselves, bridges to nowhere, crags vanishing in the mists. This attitude of total calm became characteristic for High Renaissance portraits. The face has suffered in the course of time but nothing has spoiled the sad half smile that plays about the lips.

For a year or two Leonardo worked for the notorious Cesare Borgia, designing battle engines, siege devices and making maps. The Florentines commissioned Leonardo to paint the Battle of Anghiari on a wall of a newly constructed Hall of Five Hundred in the Palazzo Vecchio. This painting depicted an event from 15-th century history. It was part of a general programme to celebrate the newly revived republic.

Leonardo's later life was a succession of trips between Florence, Milan and Rome. He painted little in his later years. At his death Leonardo's artistic influence was immense, but much of his scientific work had to await later rediscovery.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Leonardo da Vinci; Raphael; Immaculate Conception; magi; Verrocchio; Mona Lisa; Milan; Cesare Borgia; Rome


Baptism of Christ – «Крещение Христа»

Adoration of the Magi – «Поклонение волхвов»

Madonna of the Rocks – «Мадонна в гроте»

Madonna and Saint Anna – «Святая Анна с Марией и младенцем Христом»

Last Supper – «Тайная вечеря»

Mona Lisa – «Мона Лиза» («Джоконда»)

Battle ofAnghiari – «Битва при Ангиар»


I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. When Leonardo began his career artists lived like princes.

2. In the Last Supper Leonardo has painted a higher reality, thus making a complete break with the Early Renaissance.

3. The Battle of Anghiari is the earliest and most famous Leonardo's picture.

4. In the Madonna and Saint Anna the figures are pictured in a strange rocky shadowy grotto.

5. The Madonna of the Rocks was designed in Florence in 1501 and completed many years later in Milan.

6. The Adoration of the Magi was Leonardo's last work.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. How did Leonardo fulfil the Renaissance ideal of the Universal Man?

3. What does Leonardo's reputation as an artist rest on? What happened to his other works of art? Why?

4. What is Leonardo's first masterpiece? What colour dominates in this work of art?

5. In what work of art has Leonardo interpreted the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception? How has he interpreted it?

6. What does the Madonna and Saint Anna represent?

7. What compositional form dominates in Leonardo's works?

8. What is pictured in The Last Supper? Where do the figures operate? How are the Apostles arranged? What does each of these numbers mean?

9. What is the Mona Lisa famous for? What is depicted in the background?

10. What else did Leonardo create in Florence?

11. What did Leonardo do in his later life?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

an apprentice; to surpass the achievements of the time; a craftsman; workshop; the Oratory of the Immaculate Conception; a monochrome underpaint; a pyramidal composition; the taint of the Original Sin; traditional representations of the ordinary theme; sacrificial death; to manifest the Divinity; to take smb under the protection; to betray the cause; the prophecy of the Baptism of Christ; to create an enigma; notorious; a characteristic device; on the end wall of the refectory; to make a complete break with; the figure sits in a relaxed position; to suffer in the course of time; a smile plays about the lips; on the dry plaster.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

ремесленники; члены гильдии; символ жертвенной смерти; традиционное изображение обычной темы; на сухой штукатурке; возродить авторитет классической античности; взять кого-либо под свое покровительство; пирамидальная композиция; церковь Непорочного Зачатия; предать дело; одноцветный набросок; позор Первородного Греха; проявить божественность; пророчество крещения Христа; опередить достижения своего времени.

III. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

IV. Translate the following groups of words into Russian:

ideal – idealism – idealistic; invent – inventor – invention – inventive; craftsman – craftsmanship; apprentice – apprenticeship; symbol – symbolic – symbolism; pyramid – pyramidal; commission -commissioner; city – citizen – citizenship; relax – relaxation – relaxed; betray – betrayal – betrayer; manifest – manifestation; mature -maturate – maturation – maturely – maturity; concentrate – concentrated -concentration; fame – famous; gift – gifted.

V. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) gifted; traditional; outstanding; characteristic; complete; progress; enigma; famous; notorious; to commission; prophet; baptism; protection;

b) riddle; consecration; celebrated; infamous; talented; conventional; prominent; guardianship; typical; entire; advance; to order; foreseer.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Leonardo's works of art. Match them up to the titles given below.

1. The Apostles are presented in four groups of three each.

2. Christ Child manifests his Divinity as he blesses the infant St. John.

3. This painting depicts an event from 15-th century history.

4. The face has suffered in the course of time but nothing has spoiled the sad half smile that plays about the lips.

5. It was never carried any further than the monochrome underpaint.

6. The Virgin sits on her mother's lap, as in traditional representations of this theme.

a. Mona Lisa

b. Adoration of the Magi

c. Madonna of the Rocks

d. Last Supper

e. Madonna and Saint Anna

f. Battle ofAnghiari

V. Insert the missing prepositions. Retell the text.

… Leonardo architecture was based… the twin principles… geometric relations and natural growth. And nothing was so important as the central-plan structure. This new organic architecture was realised… Bramante's plan for Saint Peter's. But the idea… it originated… Leonardo's mind. Leonardo abandoned both the planar architecture… Brunelleschi and the block architecture… AlbertI. He began… plans and perspective drawings… the same structure. Leonardo started… an octagon surrounded… eight circles, and a Greek cross whose arms, terminating… four semicircular apses, embrace four additional octagons… each… which a tower must be erected.

VI. Insert the article wherever necessary. Retell the text.

Nothing in Leonardo's scientific drawings is quite as exciting as his Olympian views of… nature, which illustrate his standpoint in… Renaissance debate about… relative importance of… various arts. Leonardo maintained that… painting deserved… position as one of… liberal arts, more than… music or… poetry… Music, he noted is dead as soon as… last sound has expired, but… work of… painting is always there to be seen. He pointed out, no one ever travelled to read… poem, but… people journey… hundreds of miles to see… painting. Leonardo did not admit… sculpture to… liberal arts;… painter could work in quiet, sitting down, richly dressed and listen to… music while he worked, while… sculptor was covered with… sweat and… dust and his ears deafened by… noise of… hammer and… chisel on… stone.

VII. Translate the text into English.

Леонардо да Винчи – первый художник Высокого Ренессанса, недолгого золотого века итальянского искусства. Произведения этого периода характеризуются синтезом прекрасных сторон жизни. Фигура ангела, написанная Леонардо, в картине его учителя Андреа Вероккио «Крещение» демонстрирует разницу в восприятии мира художниками разных эпох.

С 1482 по 1499 гг. Леонардо жил в Милане. Это был один из лучших периодов творчества художника. Здесь он написал «Мадонну в гроте» – первую монументальную алтарную композицию Высокого Ренессанса. Самая большая работа Леонардо – роспись стены трапезной монастыря Санта Мария делла Грацие на сюжет «Тайной Вечери». Христос в последний раз встречается за ужином со своими учениками, чтобы объявить о предательстве одного из них. Леонардо показал реакцию двенадцати апостолов на слова учителя. Судьба фрески трагична. Эксперименты Леонардо привели к ее быстрому осыпанию.

В 1503 г. во Флоренции Леонардо выполнил картину на тему битвы миланцев и флорентийцев при Ангиари, заказанную для стены нового зала палаццо Синьории и создал портрет Моны Лизы, супруги Франческо дель Джокондо. Мона Лиза изображена на фоне пейзажа с мостами и дорогами в никуда, скалами, исчезающими в облаках. В портрете Моны Лизы достигнута наивысшая степень гармонии и красоты образа эпохи Высокого Ренессанса.

VIII. Summarize the text.

IX. Topics for discussion.

1. Leonardo's religious paintings.

2. Leonardo's portraits.

3. Leonardo's artistic influence.

Unit VI Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564)

The sixteenth century in central Italy was dominated by the colossal genius of Michelangelo BuonarrotI.

Michelangelo learned the techniques of painting during a year of his boyhood spent in Ghirlandaio's studio, sculpture he studied with Bertoldo di Giovanni, the pupil of Donatello. His earliest masterpiece is the Pieta, done in 1498-99/1500 during his first stay in Rome. The perfect formation of the slender Christ, lying across the knees of his mother, excited the admiration of Michelangelo's contemporaries. The exquisite Virgin looks as young as her son. The ageless Virgin is a symbol of the Church, she presents the timeless reality of Christ's sacrifice. The extreme delicacy in the handling of the marble and the contrast between the long lines of Christ's figure and the crumpled drapery folds produce passages of a beauty that Michelangelo never surpassed, despite the grandeur of his mature and late work.

The heroic style for which Michelangelo is generally known is seen in the David more than 14 feet in height, which was carved in 1501-4, for a lofty position on one of the buttresses of the Cathedral of Florence. When the statue was completed, it was so beautiful that the Florentines could not sacrifice it in such a position. It was placed in front of the Palazzo Vecchio, where it became a symbol of the republic ready for battle against its enemies. The David became the first true colossus of the High Renaissance.

In 1505 Michelangelo was called by the warrior pope Julius II to design a tomb for him. This project with more than forty over-life statues in marble and bronze relief would require a lifetime. After several successive reductions the tomb was brought to completion only in 1545. Three statues remain from the 1505 version.

The world-famous statue of Moses was intended for a corner position on the second story of the monument so that it could be seen from below. Like all of Michelangelo's works, the Moses, is symbolic and timeless. Moses is conceived as an activist prophet, a counterpart to Saint Paul. The bulk of the figure is almost crushing. Moses' head with its two-tailed beard, is one of the artist's most formidable creations; the locks of the beard are lightly drawn aside by the fingers of his right hand. The drapery masses enhance the compactness of the figure.

The two Slaves for the 1505 and 1513 versions of the tomb were planned to flank niches around the lower story, in which were to stand Victories. The figure called the Dying Slave is actually not dying but turning languidly as if in sleep; one hand is placed upon his head, the other pulls unconsciously at the narrow bond of cloth across his massive chest. The strikingly different companion figure, the Rebellious Slave, exerts all his gigantic strength in vain against the slender bond that ties his arms. The new figure type created by Michelangelo in the David, and set in action here for the first time, established a standard that influenced a great number of artists. Throughout the late Renaissance and the Baroque, Michelangelesque heavy muscled figure was almost universally imitated.

In 1508 Michelangelo was given a commission to fresco the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The upper walls had been frescoed in the 1480s by Botticelli, Ghirlandaio, Perugino and SignorellI. Julius II asked Michelangelo to paint the ceiling, a flattened barrel vault more than 130 feet long. It was the most ambitious undertaking of the entire Renaissance.

The painting represented the drama of the Creation and Fall of Man and consisted of nine scenes, beginning with the Separation of Light from Darkness and ending with the Drunkenness of Noah. In the vault compartments above the windows and in the lunettes around the windows are represented the forty generations of the ancestry of Christ, and in the spandrels at the corners of the Chapel are pictured David and Goliath, Judith and Holofernes, the Crucifixion of Human and the Brazen Serpent.

In this intricate iconographic structure the coming of Christ is foretold in the nine scenes from Genesis, according to the principle of correspondence between the Old and New Testaments that was illustrated repeatedly throughout Christian art. An added element is the oak tree of the Rovere family, to which Julius II and his uncle Sixtus iv belonged. The Rovere oak tree invaded the, scenes of Creation and alluded poetically to the Tree of Life, which stood near the Tree of Knowledge in the Garden of Eden and whose fruit in medieval theology was Christ.

The Fall of Man combines the Temptation and the Expulsion in a single scene, which in one motion leads the eye from the crime to punishment, linked by the Tree of Knowledge, represented as a fig tree. Never in history had nude figures been painted on such a colossal scale.

Michelangelo's vision of a new and grander humanity reaches its supreme embodiment in the Creation of Adam. Instead of standing on earth as in all earlier Creation scenes, the Lord floats through the heavens and is enveloped in the violet mantle he wears in all the scenes in which he appears. The violet colour is required for the vestments of the clergy during Advent and Lent, the penitential periods before the coming of Christ at Christmas and his resurrection at Easter. The Lord is borne by wingless angels. Michelangelo's Creator for the first time makes believable the concept of omnipotence. A dynamo of creative energy, God stretches forth his hand, about to touch with his finger the extended finger of Adam. This image of the creative finger derives from the famous medieval hymn «Come, Creator Spirit» sung at Pentecost, the festival of the Descent of the Holy Spirit. In this hymn the «finger of the paternal right hand» is invoked to bring speech to our lips, light to our senses, love to our hearts, and strength to our bodies. Adam reclines on the barren ground below, longing for life, and love about to be instilled by this finger. Adam means «Earth» and the finger is shown ready to be charged with the energy that will lift him from the dust and make him a «living soul». Adam's body is the most perfect structure ever created by Michelangelo. It embodies the beauty of Classical antiquity and the spirituality of Christianity.

The final scenes as one moves toward the altar were also the last in order of execution. TheLord Congregating the Waters was held to foreshadow the foundation of the Church. The Creationof Sun, Moon, and Plants shows the Lord twice, once creating sun and moon with a cruciform gesture of his mighty arms, then seen from the rear creating plants. Just above the altar the Lord separates the light from the darkness.

The seated prophets and sibyls show the majestic possibilities of the draped figure. Although Michelangelo's figures were clothed they looked nude. The Persian Sibyl was represented as immensely old, Jeremiah as grieving above the papal throne, Daniel aflame with prophecy as he writes in a small volume, the Libyan Sibyl looking down upon the altar, at the eternal Tree of Life. The final phase of the Sistine Ceiling is one of the supreme moments in the spiritual history of mankind. It was created during the years when Julius II, who commissioned and inspired the Sistine Ceiling, was fighting on the battlefield for the continued life of the Papal States against the armies of King Louis XII, and completed when the victory was won.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Michelangelo Buonarroti; David; Moses; Ghirlandaio; Dante, Julius; Saint; Noah; Signorelli; Perugino; Goliath; Judith; Holofernes; sibyl


Pieta [??????? – Пьета («Оплакивание Христа»)

David- Давид

Moses – «Моисеи»

Dying Slave – «Умирающий раб»

Rebellious Slave – «Восставший раб»

Separation of Light from Darkness – «Отделение света от тьмы»

The Lord Congregating the Waters -» Отделение тверди от воды»

Creation of Sun, Moon, and Plants – «Сотворение светил и растений»

Drunkenness of Noah – «Осмеяние Ноя»

David and Goliath – «Давид и Голиаф»

Judith and Holofernes – «Юдифь и Голоферн»

Crucifixion of Human – «Человеческие страдания»

Brazen Serpent – «Змий-Искуситель»

Fall of Man – «Грехопадение»

Temptation – «Искушение»

Expulsion – «Изгнание из Рая»

Creation of Adam – «Сотворение Адама»

Persian Sibyl – «Персидская сивилла»

Jeremiah – пророк Иеремия

Daniel – Даниил

Libyan Sibyl – Ливийская сивилла


1. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. Michelangelo's first masterpiece is the David.

2. The Moses was the first colossus of the High Renaissance.

3. The Redemption of man is the subject of the Sistine Ceiling.

4. Michelangelo's heavy nude figure was universally imitated by the painters throughout Europe.

5. Michelangelo imagined God over the altar.

6. Adam reclines on the fertile ground.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. Where did Michelangelo learn to paint? Where did Michelangelo study sculpture?

2. What is the Pieta famous for? What does the ageless Virgin symbolize?

3. Where is Michelangelo's heroic style seen?

4. What was Michelangelo commissioned in 1505? What remained from this project? How did Michelangelo represent Moses? How are the Dying Slave and the Rebellious Slave carved?

5. What was Michelangelo commissioned in 1508? How large was the ceiling?

6. What does the painting of the Sistine Ceiling represent?

7. What scenes are pictured in the lunettes around the windows and in the spandrels at the corners? Why does the oak tree invade the scenes of the creation?

8. What does the Fall of Man combine?

9. Where is the beauty of Classical antiquity and the spirituality of Christianity embodied?

10. What do the final scenes represent?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

the ageless exquisite Virgin; a formidable creation; lunettes; an activist prophet; to carve a statue; a buttress; to design a tomb; over-life statues in marble; successive reductions; a counterpart to; Advent; Lent; to set in action; the ceiling painting; to flank niches; a flattened barrel vault; an ambitious undertaking; a formidable creation; to allude poetically to; the vault compartments above the windows; generations of the ancestry; in the spandrels at the corners; to lift from the dust; a medieval hymn; to reach its supreme embodiment in; penitential periods; the resurrection at Easter; at Pentecost; to recline on the barren ground; a companion figure.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

ваять статую; соорудить гробницу; грандиозный замысел; неподвластная времени совершенная Мадонна; Воскрешение на Пасху; пророк-деятель; статуи выше человеческого роста; контрфорс; Великий пост; Рождественский пост; раскинуться на голой земле; люнеты; в пазухах свода; внушительное произведение; фланкировать ниши; пятидесятница; плоскость свода; поэтически ссылаться на; средневековый гимн; парная фигура; поколения предков; привести в движение; последовательные сокращения; достичь наивысшего воплощения в; поднять из праха; соратник к. -л.

III. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

IV. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) recline; barren; penitential; undertaking; to enhance;

b) sorrowful; endeavour; lean back; to intensify; infertile.

IV. Insert the missing prepositions. Retell the text.

… 1519 Michelangelo began working… the Medici… a funerary chapel… the entombment… Lorenzo the Magnificent, his murdered brother and two recently deceased dukes. Michelangelo's architecture supports the tombs… the two dukes… simple rectangular niches sit the two dukes, dressed… Roman armour… their roles as captains… the Roman Catholic Church. The sarcophagi have been split… the centre… either side recline figures… the times… day, Night and Day, Dawn and Twilight. These statues were not made… their present positions. The composition should be completed… the reclining river gods. Night and Day are the timeless symbols… the princely power that has conquered the powers… time (the times… day) and… space (the four rivers). When Michelangelo was engaged… this work glorifying the Medici power, the Sack… Rome destroyed temporarily the power… his Medici patron. The republic was revived… the third and the last time, and Michelangelo was placed… charge… its defences.

V. Insert the articles wherever necessary. Retell the text.

… High Renaissance in… Rome and Florence was brief. It lasted hardly more than… twenty five years from its beginning in… Leonardo's Last Supper to… death of… Raphael in…1520… new style succeeded it. It existed for… while… side by… side with… latest phases of… High Renaissance art… new style assumed… name of Mannerism… name Mannerism was proposed by… art historians in… twentieth century. Like… terms… Romanesque and… Gothic, Mannerism is here to stay… Mannerism indicates… style founded upon repetition of… acquired manual techniques. In… latest phases of… sixteenth century art in… central Italy there was much repetition of… type and… devices invented earlier, especially those of… Michelangelo. There was nothing mechanical what went on in… Florence,… Seine,… Parma and… many other Italian cities just before and just after…1520… moment was recognized as… spiritual crisis.

VI. Here are descriptions of some of Michelangelo's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.

I. Sculpture:

1. The figure is turning languidly as if in sleep.

2. This is one of the artist's most formidable creations.

3. The exquisite Virgin presents the timeless reality of Christ's sacrifice.

4. The heroic style is seen in this statue.

5. The new figure type earlier created by Michelangelo is set here in action.

a. David

b. Pieta

c. Rebellious Slave

d. Moses

e. Dying Slave

II. Ceiling painting:

1. God stretches forth his hand, about to touch with his finger the extended finger of Adam.

2. It foreshadows the foundation of the Church.

3. In a single scene, one motion of the eye leads from the crime to punishment, linked by the Tree of Knowledge.

4. The scene shows the Lord twice, once creating sun and moon with a cruciform gesture of his mighty arms, then seen from the rear creating plants.

5. She looks down upon the altar, at the eternal Tree of Life.

6. He writes in a small volume.

7. The figure is represented as im- mensely old.

8. The figure is grieving above the papal throne.

a. Fall of Man

b. Creation of Sun, Moon, and Plants

c. Creation of Adam

d. Lord Congregating the Waters

g. Jeremiah

h. Daniel

e. Libyan Sibyl

f. Persian Sibyl

VII. Translate the text into English

Центральную часть потолка Микеланджело посвятил сценам священной истории, начиная от сотворения мира. Под живописным карнизом Микеланджело написал пророков и сивилл, в люнетах изобразил эпизоды из Библии и предков Христа как простых людей. В девяти центральных композициях развертываются события первых дней творения: отделение света от тьмы, отделения тверди от воды, сотворение светил и растений, сотворение Адама и Евы, грехопадение и изгнание из Рая, всемирный потоп, опьянение Ноя. Микеланджело сотворил чудо. Целой жизни не одного, а многих людей не хватило бы, чтобы завершить это великое творение. Микеланджело работал один. Он создал гимн человеку. Бог – это прежде всего творец, не знающий преград на пути созидания. Адам идеально прекрасен в сцене «Сотворение Адама». Величие, мощь, благородство выражены в образах пророков и сивилл.

Несмотря на большое количестве фигур, роспись Сикстинского плафона логически ясна и легко обозрима. Она не разрушает плоскости свода, а выявляет тектоническую структуру.

VIII. Summarize the text.

IX. Topics for discussion.

1. Michelangelo's sculpture.

2. Michelangelo's ceiling painting.

3. Michelangelo's artistic heritage.

Unit VII Raphael (1483-1520)

Raffaello Sanzo, known as Raphael, was the third giant of the High Renaissance. In his art the High Renaissance ideal of harmony comes to its most complete expression.

Raphael was born in Urbino. First taught by his father, Giovanni Santi, a mediocre painter, Raphael worked for some time in the studio of Perugino.

In 1504 Raphael painted The Marriage of the Virgin for a church of Citta di Castello. The central group is unified around the motive of Joseph putting the ring on Mary's finger. The architecture of the distant Temple grows out of a wide piazza. The Dome of the Temple is identified with that of Heaven. The perspective of the squares in the piazza moves through the open doors of the building to the point of infinity.

About 1505 Raphael arrived in Florence and achieved immediate success. Leonardo and Michelangelo, who were working there on the murals for the council chamber in the Palazzo Vec-chio, had establislied the High Renaissance style. Raphael met the demand with ease and grace. Having absorbed Perugino's feeling for light and colour, Leonardo's composition, Michelangelo's strength and power, Raphael put his personal stamp on everything he did; he was called the «Apostle of Beauty».

During his three-year stay in Florence he painted a great number of portraits and Madonnas. The loveliest of which is the Madonna of the Meadows dated 1505. The pyramidal group was influenced by Leonardo's composition of the Madonna and Saint Anna. But Raphael's picture is simpler. The Virgin sits before an airy landscape with a lake in the distance. The Child stands in front of her. Kneeling before Him is child St John the Baptist, holding the reed Cross. The bodies and heads of the children, the Virgin and the background landscape are full of harmony. To Raphael harmony was the basic purpose of any composition.

In 1508 Julius II invited twenty-six-year-old Raphael to paint the Stanze (chambers) of the Vatican. Raphael retained the position as court painter until his early death. His ideals of figural and compositional harmony came to be recognized as the High Renaissance principles. Classical artists of succeeding centuries (Poussin in the 17-th century and Ingres in the 19-th century) turned to Raphael as the messiah of their art and doctrine. The first room frescoed by Raphael was Stanza della Segnatura. From the complex iconographic programme, it is possible to single out two frescoes on the opposite walls: they typify the Classical and Christian elements reconciled in the synthesis of the High Renaissance. The Disputa (Disputation over the Sacrament), the most complete expression of the doctrine of the Eucharist in Christian art, faces the School of Athens, an equally encyclopaedic presentation of the philosophers of pagan antiquity. In the Stanza painted afterwards, Raphael abandoned the perfect but static harmony for more dynamic compositions, which brought him to the threshold of the Baroque.

From this period dates the Sistine Madonna, so called because Saint Sixtus II kneels at the Virgin's right. The picture was intended to commemorate the death of Julius II in 1513. The saint's bearded face is a portrait of the aged pontiff. Saint Barbara, patron saint of the hour of death, looks down at his coffin, on which the papal tiara rests. The Virgin, showing the Child, walks toward the observers on the luminous clouds. In harmonizing form and movement this painting represents the pinnacle of Raphael's achievements. The Virgin and Child in their perfect beauty represent the ultimate in the High Renaissance vision of the nobility of the human countenance and form.

After the death of the warrior pope Julius II Giovanni de Medici became Roman pope. Raphael painted the portrait of Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de'Medici and Luigi de'Rossi in 1517 (the fateful year when Martin Luther, whom the Pope excommunicated in 1520, nailed his theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenburg). Raphael has shown Leo X as he was in an unsparing portrait – corpulent, shrewd, pleasure-looking. Raphael endowed his subject with a new mass and volume. His analysis of the character was unexpected and profound. Raphael has shown the Pope who was incapable of holding the Roman Catholic Church together.

One of Raphael's last and greatest paintings was the Transfiguration of Christ, painted in 1517. In contrast to the traditional rendering of the subject, Raphael painted an accompanying incident as well. It was told by Matthew and Luke. When Peter, James, and John had accompanied Christ to the top of a high mountain, the remaining Apostles were unable without his presence to cast out the demons from the possessed boy. The lowei section is composed of the agitated figures of the Apostles and the youth plunged into semidarkness. The upper loop is composed of Christ, Moses, Elijah, and three Apostles. Christ and the prophets fly in the air as if lifted up by the spiritual experience. In this vision of Christ Raphael embodied his beliefs.

The great painter died on Good Friday, April 6, 1520, at the age of thirty-seven. His funeral was held in the Pantheon and the Transfiguration was placed above his bier.

To his contemporaries Raphael's death seemed the end of an era, but a closer look shows that, in a way, the High Renaissance synthesis of Classical and Christian had already started to dissolve. Inevitably, it was an unstable equilibrium. Nonetheless the great solution remained, on the walls of the Vatican, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and in the churches and palaces of Florence and Rome. Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael left a vision of the powers of the human being and the grandeur of human imagination that had not been approached since the days of the ancient Greeks. These solutions continued to inspire artists in every century after the short-lived High Renaissance itself passed into history.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the/allowing words:

Raphael; Urbino; messiah; tiara; Wittenburg; Martin Luther; Pantheon; Eucharist; Elijah; Matthew; Luke; Ingres; luminous


Marriage of the Virgin – «Обручение Марии»

Madonna of the Meadows – «Мадонна в зелени»

Disputa (Disputation over the Sacrament) – «Богословие» или «Диспута»

Schools of Athens- «Афинская школа»

Sistine Madonna – «Сикстинская Мадонна»

Transfiguration of Christ – «Преображение»

Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de'Medici and Luigi de'Rossi – «Портрет папы Льва X с кардиналом Джулиано де Медичи и Луиджи де Росси»

Stanza della Segnatura – Станца делла Сеньятура «зал Подписи»

Eucharist – евхаристия, святое причастие

The Vatican – Ватикан

Good Friday – Великая пятница, пятница на страстной



I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false

1. In Raphael's art the High Renaissance ideal of harmony comes to its most complete expression.

2. In 1505 in Rome Raphael achieved immediate success.

3. The Sistine Madonna recalls the Madonna of the Rocks.

4. Raphael, invited by Sixtus iv to paint the Stanza of the Vatican, retained the position as court painter until his death.

5. Raphael came to the threshold of the Baroque.

6. The 20-th century painters turned to Raphael as the messiah.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. Whose styles did Raphael absorb?

2. What did Raphael paint in 1504? What is depicted in this picture?

3. What was Raphael fond of painting during his three-year stay in Florence? Which one was the loveliest? How did Raphael group the figures?

4. What was the first room frescoed by Raphael? What frescoes is it possible to single out from the complex iconographic programme? What do these frescoes represent? What brought Raphael to the threshold of the Baroque style?

5. What painting represents the pinnacle of Raphael's achievements? How are the Virgin and the Child depicted? What do the saints symbolize?

6. Whose portrait did Raphael paint in 1517? What year was it? How did Raphael portray the sitter? What did he want to show?

7. What was Raphael's greatest painting? What was its subject? Was it a traditional rendering of the subject? What is the lower section composed of? What is the upper loop composed of? What did Raphael embody in this vision? Where was this painting placed?

8. What was Raphael's death to his contemporaries? What does a closer look at the short-lived High Renaissance show?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases

the pinnacle of the achievements; messiah of the art; to put a personal stamp on; succeeding centuries; to abandon the static harmony for dynamic compositions; a threshold of the Baroque; to endow the subject with; Good Friday; to commemorate the death of; to pass into history; patron saint of the hour of death; the fateful year; an unsparing portrait; the traditional rendering of the subject; a synthesis of Classical antiquity and Christian spirituality; an unstable equilibrium; to inspire artists in every century; the ultimate in the High Renaissance vision.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

духовный опыт; воплотить свои верования; вершинь живописных работ Высокого Ренессанса; шаткое равновесие, вдохновлять художников; Великая Пятница; традиционное изображение темы; наделить образы; судьбоносный год; почтить память; покровительница смертного часа; отказаться от статики гармонии ради динамики композиции; мессия искусства; работать над фресками; оставить печать на; объединить вокруг; беспощадный портрет; на пороге Барокко; вдохновлять художников последующих веков; синтез христианской духовности и классической античности.

III. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

IV. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) to dissolve; to embody; beliefs; to endow; to distinguish; spiritual; profound; fateful; luminous; to abandon;

b) to bestow; deep; momentous; bright; to desert; to vanish; to manifest; doctrines; to characterise; airy.

IV. Insert the missing prepositions. Translate the text. Retell the text.

The «School… Athens» presents… an ideal architecture the chief philosophers… all periods… Greek antiquity engaged… learned argument. The figures form a circle… depth… the lofty structure, culminating… the central arch, where… the distant sky Plato, holding the «Timaeus» points… Heaven as the source… ideas… which the early forms originate, while Aristotle, holding his Ethics, indicates earth u;. the object… all observations… the upper left Socrates discusses philosophical principles… the youths… Athens… the lower left Pythagoras delineates his proportion system… a slate… pupils… the right Euclid uses another slate to demonstrate a geometric theorem.

V. Insert the article wherever necessary. Translate the text. Retell the text.

… «Disputa» begins in… Heaven. God… Father presides over… familiar Deesis with Christ enthroned, displaying his… wounds. On either side, in… floating semicircle of… cloud,… Apostles and… saints from… New Testament alternate with… prophets and… patriarchs from… Old Testament… Below…

throne of Christ,… Dove of… Holy Spirit, flanked by… child angels, with four open gospels, flies downward toward… Host. They are displayed on… altar. On either side of… alter sit… Four Fathers of… Church and… groups of… theologians from all ages of… Christianity engaged in… argumentation over… nature of… Eucharist. Among… recognizable portraits are those of… Dante, and to… left of… door, and in front of him,… Sixtus IV. Every figure is based on Raphael's fundamental spiritual principle.

VI. Here are descriptions of some of Raphael's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.

1. The painting is an encyclopaedic presentation of the philosophers of pagan antiquity.

2. The central group is unified around the motive of Joseph putting the ring on Mary's finger.

3. Raphael has shown the sitter as he was in an unsparing portrait.

4. The Virgin, showing the Child walks toward us on the luminous clouds.

5. This is the most complete expression of the doctrine of the Eucharist in Christian art.

6. In contrast to the traditional rendering of the subject, Raphael painted an accompanying incident as well.

7. The Virgin seats before a deep landscape.

a. Sistine Madonna

b. School ofAthens

c. Madonna of the Meadows

d. Transfiguration of Christ

e. Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de 'Medici and Luigi de'Rossi

f. Marriage of the Virgin

g. Disputa(Disputation over the Sacrament)

VII. Translate the text into English.

Идеалы Высокого Возрождения наиболее полно воплотились в произведениях Рафаэля. Всем своим творчеством художник подчеркивал красоту и гармонию человека. Рафаэль создал возвышенный образ совершенного человека, находящегося в гармонии с окружающим миром.

В 1504 г. Рафаэль приехал во Флоренцию, где работали тогда два великих его современника — Леонардо да Винчи и Микеланджело. Многое почерпнув у них, Рафаэль создал замечательные изображения «Мадонн» и портреты. Портреты «Папы Юлиана II» и «Льва X» считаются наилучшими.

В 1508 г. папа Юлий II поручил Рафаэлю роспись станц – личных папских покоев в Ватикане. В 1509 художник приступил к работе в «Станце печати», роспись которой состоит из четырех фресок. Это – «Богословие» (спор отцов церкви о причастии), «Поэзия» (изображает величайших поэтов классической древности и итальянского Возрождения), «Правосудие» (фреска представляет основоположников светского и церковного законодательства) и «Афинская школа» (собрание философов и ученых античности). Росписи в станцах являются одной из высочайших вершин искусства Высокою Возрождения.

«Сикстинская Мадонна» — одно из самых вдохновенных произведений художника. В этой картине сочетается жизненная правдивость образа с чертами идеального совершенства.

В последние годы жизни Рафаэль помимо живописи занимался также архитектурой, в которой проявил себя как один из крупнейших мастеров своего времени.

VIII. Summarize the text.

IX. Topics for discussion

1. Raphael as the artist of the High Renaissance ideal of harmony.

2. Raphael's frescoes.

3. The High Renaissance heritage.

Unit VIII Titian (1490-1576)

The monarch of the Venetian School in the sixteenth century was Titian. A robust mountaineer came to Venice as a boy from the Alpine town of Pieve di Cadore and lived well into his nineties. The young painter was trained in the studios of both Gentille Bellini and Giovanni BellinI. Then he assisted Giorgione with the lost frescoes that once decorated the exteriors of Venetian palaces.

Once independent, Titian succeeded in establishing colour as the major determinant. Although he visited central Italy only in 1545-46, Titian was aware, probably, by means of engravings, of what was going on in Florence and Rome and assimilated High Renaissance innovations to his own stylistic aims. Titian generally began with a red ground, which communicated warmth to his colouring; over that he painted figures and background often in brilliant hues.

Titian's life was marked by honours and material rewards. He made himself wealthy. His palace in Venice was the centre of a near-princely court, fulfilling the worldly ideal of the painter's standing as formulated by Leonardo da VincI. In 1553 Titian began his acquaintance with the Emperor Charles V. There is a legend that the Emperor, on a visit to Titian's studio, stooped to pick up a brush the painter had dropped. Titian was called twice to the imperial court.

An early work, painted by Titian about 1515, is known as Sacred and Profane Love. The subject of this enigmatic picture has never been satisfactorily explained. Two women who look like sisters sit on either side of an open sarcophagus, which is also a fountain in the glow of late afternoon. One is clothed, another is nude save for a white scarf. The shadowed landscape behind the clothed sister leads up to a castle, toward which a horseman gallops while rabbits play in the dimness. Behind the nude sister the landscape is filled with light, and huntsmen ride behind a hound about to catch a hare, while the shepherds tend their flocks before a village with a church tower, touched with evening light. Cupid stirs the waters in the sarcophagus-fountain. The picture becomes a glorification of the beauty and redeeming power of love. Sometimes it is interpreted as the passage from virginity through the water of suffering, a kind of baptism, to a new life in love.

Titian made a series of mythological paintings for a chamber in the palace of the duke of Ferrara. One of these, the Bacchanal of the Andrians, of about 1520, is based on the description by the third-century Roman writer Philostratus of a picture he saw in a villa near Naples. The inhabitants of the island of Andros disport themselves in a shady grove. The freedom of the poses (within Titian's triangular system) is completely new. Titian has taken the greatest visual delight from the contrast of warm flesh with shimmering drapery and light with unexpected dark.

Like his mythological pictures, Titian's early religious paintings are affirmations of health and beauty. The Assumption of the Virgin, 1515-18, is his sole venture into the realm of the colossal. It represents the moment when the soul of the Virgin was reunited with her dead body. Above the powerful figures of the Apostles on earth, Mary is lifted physically into a golden Heaven on a glowing cloud by numerous child angels, where she is awaited by God the Father. The bright reds, blues, whites of drapery, the rich light of the picture carry Titian's triumphant message through the spacious interior of the Gothic Church of the Frari in Venice.

In the Madonna of the House of Pesaro, 1519-26, Titian applied his triangular compositional principle to the traditional Venetian Madonna group. The symmetry is broken up by a radical view from one side. The scene is a portico of the Virgin's palace. At the steps plunging diagonally into depth Titian painted the kneeling members of the Pesaro family and an armoured figure who gives the Virgin as a trophy a Turk, taken in battle. The columns are seen diagonally, their capitals are outside the frame. At the top clouds float before the columns, on which stand child angels with the Cross. The colours are rich and deep.

Titian's portraits do not often sparkle with colour as the male costume of the sixteenth century was black. In his Man with the Glove Titian's triangular principle is embodied in the balanced relationship of the gloved and ungloved hands to the shoulders and the youthful face. The carefully modelled hands and features are characteristic of Titian's portraits. Even in this picture, dominated by black and by the soft greenishgray background, colour is everywhere dissolved in the glazes, which mute all sharp contrasts.

A subject that occupied Titian in his mature years is the nude recumbent Venus – a pose originally devised by Giorgione. In 1538 Titian painted the Venus of Urbino for the duke of Camerino. The figure relaxes in ease on a coach in a palace interior whose inlaid marble floor and wall hangings make gold, greenish, soft red-and-brown foil for her beautiful body, the floods of her warm, light brown hair. Pure colour rules in the picture of Titian's middle period. In his later years form appealed to Titian less; substance itself was almost dissolved in the movement of colour.

In 1546 Titian painted a full-length Portrait of Pope Paul III and his Grandsons. Undoubtedly, this painting was carried to a point that satisfied both artist and patron. The brushstrokes are free and sweeping. But the question still arises whether the picture is really finished. The sketchy technique characteristic of the backgrounds in Titian's early works was applied by the artist to the whole picture. Veils of pigment transform the entire painting into a free meditation in colour. Colour indeed, is the principle vehicle of Titian's pictorial message.

In the works of his extremely old age, form was revived and colour grew more brilliant. Titian's late paintings of pagan subjects are unrestrained in their power and beauty. The devices of rapid movement and excellent colour, ignoring details were used to increase emotional effect in the very late Crowning with Thorns, probably painted about 1570, six years before the artist's death. The hail of brushstrokes creates cloudy shapes. The agony of Christ and the fury of his tormentors are expressed in storms of colour. The last religious works of Titian reached a point beyond which only Rembrandt in the seventeenth century could proceed.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Titian; Giorgione; Venus; Cupid; Venice; Venetian; Gothic; bacchanal; Veronese; sarcophagus; Naples; Alpine; Susannah; profane


Sacred and Profane Love – «Любовь земная и небесная»

Bacchanal of the Andrians – «Вакханалия»

Assumption of the Virgin – «Ассунта»

Madonna of the House of Pesaro – «Мадонна Пезаро»

Man with the Glove – «Юноша с перчаткой»

Venus of Urbino – «Венера»

Portrait of Pope Paul III and his Grandsons – «Портрет Папы Павла III с Алессандро и Оттавио Фарнезе»

Crowning with Thorns – «Бичевание Христа»


I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. The subject of the Sacred and Profane Love has been sufficiently determined.

2. Titian never ventured into the realm of the colossal.

3. The recumbent pose was originally devised by Leonardo.

4. The colours in the Madonna of the House of Pesaro are deep.

5. Titian's portraits sparkle with colour.

6. Titian's last religious works have never been surpassed.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. Where did Titian come from? Where was he trained?

2. How did Titian implement Leonardo's ideal of the painter's standard? Was he treated like equal by the princes of his time? Can you prove it?

3. What mythological pictures are analysed in the text?

4. What does the Sacred and Profane Love represent? What is there in the background? What does Cupid do? What does this picture glorify? What colours dominate in this painting? How is this work of art interpreted?

5. What is depicted in the Bacchanal of the Andrians?

6. What religious paintings are described in the text? What is depicted in these pictures? What differs one picture from another? How are Madonnas shown? What do these pictures symbolize?

5. What portraits are mentioned in this text? How did Titian portray the sitters? Where did Titian apply his triangular principle?

6. What did Titian's latest work depict? What devices did Titian use to express the agony of Christ and the fury of his tormentors?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

the exteriors of Venetian palaces; to foil for; brushstrokes; free meditation in colour; pagan subjects; freedom of poses; by means of engravings; sarcophagus; carefully modelled hands; mythological and religious pictures; to break up the symmetry; a radical view from one side; to mute all sharp contrasts; the rich light of the picture; the picture is interpreted as; a triangular principle; veils of pigments; a palace interior; in the mature years; to apply a sketchy technique to; movement of colour; inlaid floor, wall hangings; a recumbent pose; altarpieces; shimmering drapery.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:?

картины на мифологические и христианские сюжеты; звучная живописная гамма; в зрелом возрасте; тенистый пейзаж; инкрустированный пол; шпалеры; лессировка; тщательно выписанные руки; принцип треугольника; заказать картину; применить технику наброска к; алтарные образа; картина трактуется как; творческое наследие; нарушить симметрию; движение цвета; подчеркнуть путем контраста; фасады венецианских дворцов; приглушать яркие краски, грунтовка.

III. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

IV. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) to disport; to foil for; recumbent; determinant; to glorify; allegorical; shimmering; characteristically; frescoes; to redeem;

b) to contrast with; reclining; to worship; to entertain; element; mythological; glowing; to protect; murals; predominantly.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Titian's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.

1. The soul reunited with the body to be lifted corporally into Heaven.

2. The agony of Christ is expressed in storms of colour.

3. The figure relaxes in ease on a coach in a palace interior.

4. The triangular principle is embodied in the balanced relation ship of the gloved and ungloved hands to the shoulders and the youthful face.

5. The people disport themselves in a shady grove.

6. Two women sit on either side of an open sarcophagus.

7. The columns are seen diagonally.

8. The sketchy technique was applied to the whole picture.

a. Madonna of the House ofPesaro

b. Portrait of Pope Paul III and his Grandsons

c. Crowning with Thorns

d. Sacred and Profane Love

e. Venus of Urbino

f. Assumption of the Virgin

g. Bacchanal of the Andrians

h. Man with the Glove

V. Replace the expressions in italics in the following sentences with expressions from the text which have the same meaning.

1. Titian helped Giorgione to restore the external murals of the Venetian palaces. 2. When Titian became free he succeeded in establishing colour as the main element. 3. The painting worships the protecting power of love 4. The people of the island of Andros entertain themselves in a dark forest. 5. A pose of reclining Venus was initially invented by Giorgione. 6. The Assumption of the Virgin is Titian's single endeavour into the realm of the tremendous. 7. The smooth and carefully modelled hands and features are typical for Titian's portraits. 8. Titian's late works of art of heathen subjects are free in their power and beauty.

VI. Insert the missing prepositions. Translate the text. Retell the text.

Susannah at her Bath,… Jacopo Robusti, called Tintoretto,… 1560, can be considered as one… the great works… Venetian Mannerism. The story… Susannah, the Biblical «Heroin… Chastity», is taken… the Old Testament. Two men secretly entered her garden while she was… her bath unaware… their presence. When she rejected their advances they accused her falsely… her husband. Only the prophet Daniel's wise judgement saved her… the death sentence which had been passed… her alleged adultery. Here Tintoretto uses the characteristic Mannerist device… exaggeration and distortion in his drawing to portray the innate tension… that moment… the story. The sharp contrast… light and darkness,… terrifying proximity and the far distance, all contribute… the surprise and admiration that the picture evokes. Over and above all these Mannerist tricks lies the magic of Venetian painting… its preference… brownish-hues expressed… clearly visible brushstrokes.

VII. Insert the article wherever necessary. Translate the text. Retell the text.

The Raising of the Widow's Son in Nian, around 1565/70, was painted by… Veronese when his colour achieved… clarity and brilliance hitherto unknown in… Venice. He uses… sky and architecture as… cool foil for… jewel-like colour of… clothing. It gives… worldly, festive atmosphere to… New Testament story of how Christ raised… young man from… dead. Veronese has put… figure of… grateful mother into… centre of… picture and… young man who has been raised from… dead is only just visible in… lower left-hand corner… picture is thought as if it were… quotation from… play with… figures and architecture scattered around. In this way Veronese draws… observers into… action and, as so often in… Mannerist art, mixes… levels of reality.

VIII. Translate the text into English.

Тициан Вечелло – величайший художник венецианского Возрождения – создал произведения на мифологические и христианские сюжеты. Тициан оставил после себя богатейшее творческое наследие. Оно оказало огромное влияние на художников последующих веков.

Слава рано пришла к Тициану. Уже в 1516 г. он стал первым живописцем Венецианской республики. Около 1520 г. герцог Феррарский заказал Тициану цикл картин на мифологические сюжеты. Богатые венецианцы заказывали Тициану алтарные образа. Тициан создал монументальные композиции: «Вознесение Марии» и «Мадонна Пезаро». Громадная картина «Вознесение Марии» изображает вознесение Мадонны на небо. Насыщенные цвета одежды Марии на фоне светлого неба передают радость.

Много сил Тициан отдавал портретной живописи. В «Венере» Тициана многие видят портрет Элеоноры Урбинской. Введение бытовой сцены в интерьер картины вместо пейзажного фона передает ощущение реальной жизни. Блестящий портретист, Тициан раскрывал черты характера своих моделей. Групповой портрет впервые созданный Тицианом получил свое развитие только в эпоху барокко.

IX. Summarize the text.

X. Topics for discussion:

1. Titian's mythological paintings.

2. Titian's religious paintings.

3. Titian's portraits.


Unit IX The Carracci

The pioneers of Baroque monumental painting in Rome were the brothers Agosto and Annibale Carracci and their cousin Ludovico. They all came from Bologna, a city with a long artistic tradition, a heritage of Renaissance masterpieces and a direct cultural connection with the Eternal City. Between 1585 and 1590 the Carracci founded the Academy of the Incamminati, which was to play an important part in the Italian artistic culture of the seventeenth century.

Annibale (1560-1609) was historically the most significant artist of the Carracci family and artistically the most gifted. At first he was fond of Correggio and Veronese, but later he developed new power under the influence of the antique, and of Michelangelo and Raphael, Annibale Carracci presents a variety of motives and themes. To the exhausted schemes of Mannerism he opposed a combination of classical beauty and the respect for the real fact.

In Bologna in the 1580s all three Carracci had been helpful in the formation of a new kind of Renaissance – not a revival of Classical antiquity nor a discovery of the world and of man, but a revival of the Renaissance itself after a long Mannerist interlude. The Carracci aimed at a synthesis of the vigour and majesty of Michelangelo, the harmony and grace of Raphael, and the colour of Titian.

The first major undertaking of Baroque painting in Rome was the gallery of the Palazzo Fornese, painted almost entirely by Annibale CarraccI. The frescoes were commissioned by Cardinal Odoardo Farnese. The ceiling frescoes adopted from the Sistine Ceiling such ideas as large scenes, small scenes, seated nudes, simulated marble architecture and both marble and bronze sculpture. But these were organised according to a new principle in the illusionistic tradition of Mantegna. The simulated architecture applied to the barrel vault is «supported» by the simulated sculptural caryatids and youths that flank pictures into the structure. Four additional paintings with gilded frames are made to look as if they had been applied later. The complex layer of forms and illusions comes to a climax in the central scene.

The subject matter of the Love of the Gods, incompatible with the ecclesiastic status of its patron, veils a deep Christian meaning that accounts for the complex organisation and for central climax. The four smaller lateral scenes represent incidents in which the loves of gods for mortals were accepted, the two horizontal framed pictures depict episodes in which mortals refused, the two end ones reproduce the love of Cyclops Polyphemus for the nymph Galatea, and the central panel portrays the Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne. This central scene is flanked by Mercury and Paris and by Pan and Selena. The composition in which the chariots of the god and the mortal are borne along in splendid procession, accompanied by deities and Loves explains the framed pictures and justifies the four unframed lateral scenes. The entire complex structure of eleven scenes symbolises the Triumph of Divine Love. After the Mannerist interlude of public prudery, it was typical of the new Baroque attitude that a cardinal could commission a monumental Christian interpretation of ancient erotic myths. It is essential for our understanding of the Baroque that divine love, conceived as the principle at the heart of the universe, should be the motive power that draws together all the elements of the ceiling and resolves all conflicts in an unforeseeable act of redemption. The painting of the Farnese Gallery is a superb creation. The substance and the drive of the Farnese Gallery had a great impact on other ceiling compositions of the seventeenth century, and on Baroque monumental painting in general; especially the work of Peter Paul Rubens was greatly influenced by Annibale's style.

In addition to the principles of ceiling painting, Annibale Carracci excelled in his painting of romantic landscapes as well as historical subjects. He established a new type of landscape with figures in his Landscape with the Flight into Egypt, of about 1603-4. The sacred figures in relation to the vastness of the landscape are tiny. They are on a level with the observer and the landscape is no longer fantastic but based on a real one. The landscape was derived from studies made outdoors but constructed in the studio. Although a prolific artist Annibale Carracci painted little later in life. He died at Rome and was buried in the Pantheon near Raphale.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Baroque; chariot; Bologna; Pan; caryatid; Cyclops; Selena; Paris; nymph; Polyphemus; Galatea; Bacchus; Ariadne


Love of Gods – «Метаморфозы»

Landscape with the Flight into Egypt -» Пейзаж с Бегством в Египет»


I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. The pioneers of Baroque monumental painting in Florence were the brothers CarraccI.

2. The major undertaking of Baroque painting in Rome was the gallery of the Palazzo Fornese, painted entirely by Ludovico CarraccI.

3. The subject matter of the Love of the Gods was incompatible with the ecclesiastic status of its patron.

4. After the Mannerist interlude of public prudery a cardinal could commission frescoes on the subjects of ancient myths.

5. Divine love, conceived at the heart of the universe, is regarded as the motive power that draws together all the elements of the ceiling.

6. In the Love of Gods the Carracci established a new landscape with figures.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the questions?

1. What was in progress in sixteenth-century Bologna? What kind of Renaissance did the Carracci try to form? What was the Carracci's aim?

2. What did the Carracci adopt for their ceiling frescoes from the Sistine Ceiling? Why did the Carracci apply simulated architecture and sculpture to the barrel vault?

3. What does the subject matter of the Love of Gods veil? How is the Love of Gods interpreted?

4. What gods and goddesses are pictured in the Love of Gods'?

5. What do the four smaller lateral scenes in the Love of Gods depict? What do the two horizontal framed pictures show? What do the end scenes represent? What does the central panel show? What comes to a climax in the central scene? What is flanked by Mercury, Paris, Pan and Selena? How are these gods pictured?

6. What else did the Carracci establish in addition to the principles of ceiling painting? Where were these principles applied?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

a revival of the Renaissance; a long Mannerist interlude; to commission ceiling frescoes; vigour and majesty; caryatids; illusionistic tradition; simulated marble and bronze statues; chariots of the god and the mortal; a barrel vault; gilded frames; the complex layer of forms; the subject matter; to flank pictures; to be incompatible with an ecclesiastic status; a heritage of masterpieces; accompanied by deities; to veil a deep meaning; horizontal framed pictures; a central panel; lateral scenes; unframed pictures; the triumph of divine love; public prudery; sacred figures; conceived at the heart of the universe; the motive power; to resolve all conflicts; an unforeseeable act of redemption; a superb creation; the substance and the drive; on the level; derive the landscape from studies made outdoors; to construct the landscape in the studio.

II. -Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

материя и энергия; картины в рамах; цилиндрический свод; великолепное творение; всеобщее ханжество; продолжительный период Маньеризма; сила и мощь; в сопровождении божеств; священные образы; наследие шедевров Ренессанса; колесницы богов и смертных; не соответствовать духовному статусу заказчика; искупление грехов; кариатиды; нарисованные мраморные и бронзовые статуи; сложный ряд форм; движущая сила; боковые сцены; зарожденный в центре вселенной.

III. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

IV. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) lateral; antiquity; to account for; to flank; to accept; to resolve; conceive; superb; sacred; to panel;

b) divine; sidelong; ancient times; to explain; to connect; to receive; originate; excellent; to line; to solve.

IV. Match the names of the mythological personalities with the stories given below.

Galatea; Cyclops Polyphemus; Bacchus; Paris; Ariadne; Pan; Selena; Mercury.

1. She was the daughter of Minos, the king of Crete. She gave a ball of thread to Theseus so that he could find his way back from the Labyrinth.

2. The god of shepherds and herds, he was extremely ugly. He was half-god, half-goat. He had a beard, horns on his forehead and a hairy body.

3. He served as a herald of gods; there were wings on his helmet and his heels; and he bore a sceptre.

4. He was the giant with supreme natural powers, he had one eye and tended his herds. He lived in a cave on the island of Sicily. He was a cannibal and did not have knowledge of wine. He was occupied only with his sheep.

5. He was the son of the king of Troy. Zeus gave him a difficult job of judging which of the three goddesses Hera, Athena or Aphrodite ought to receive the golden apple (the apple of discord) with the words: «To the most beautiful».

6. The god of wine and gaiety. Wherever he went, he spread the culture of wine and the rituals associated with every stage of its cultivation.

7. The goddess of Moon, the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Thea.

8. The nymph who was loved by the shepherd Acis and by Cyclops Polyphemus. Polyphemus, jealous of Acis' success in winning the love of the nymph, crushed him under the rock, but the nymph turned him into a river.

V. Translate the text into English.

Аннибале и Агостино Карраччи и их двоюродный брат Лодовико основоположники барокко. В 1585 в Болонье они создали «Академию направленных на истинный путь». Новое направление получило название «болонский академизм». Принципы болонской Академии, которая стала прообразом всех европейских академий будущего, наблюдаются в творчестве Аннибале Карраччи, самого талантливого из братьев. Искусство Карраччи получило признание и распространение, так как отвечало официальной идеологии. Братья Карраччи -художники монументально-декоративной живописи. Их самое знаменитое произведение – роспись галереи Фарнезе в Риме на сюжет «Метаморфоз» Овидия, типично для барочной живописи.

Аннибале Карраччи – родоначальник героического пейзажа. Карраччи скрупулезно изучал природу. Он считал, что для того, чтобы она стала предметом изображения, ее необходимо облагородить (to polish). Пейзаж с деревьями, руинами, с маленькими фигурками людей подчеркивает величие природы. Идеи Карраччи были развиты его учениками, в творчестве которых принципы академизма были почти канонизированы.

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Carracci's ceiling painting.

2. Carracci's landscape.

Unit X Caravaggio (1573-1610)

The real giant of seventeenth-century painting in Italy is Michelangelo Merisi, called Caravaggio after his native town in Lombardy. After studying with an obscure local master, he arrived in Rome around 1590. Considered a revolutionary painter Caravaggio was the leading artist of the Naturalistic School. He lived on the fringe of respectable society. His short life was marked by violence and disaster. Caravaggio was a lifelong rebel against convention. He shocked conventional people by representing religious scenes in terms of daily life. He was in chronic trouble with authority and had to flee Rome in 1606 after he killed a man in a brawl over a tennis match. During the next years he wandered around Italy. Caravaggio died of malaria in his thirty-seventh year on his return journey to Rome, with a papal pardon in sight. Nevertheless the style of this unruly genius revolutionized European art.

In 1597 Cardinal del Mount obtained for Caravaggio the commission to paint three pictures of Matthew and scenes from his life for the Contarelli Chapel in the Church of San Luigi dei Francesi in Rome. The greatest of these is the Calling of Saint Matthew, painted about 1599-1600, an event often represented but never in this soul-stirring way. The background is a wall in a Roman tavern; a window is the only visible background object. Matthew is seated «at the receipt of custom» (Matthew 9:9) with three gaudily dressed youths at a rough table on which coins are visible; figures and objects are painted in a hard, firm style that seems to deny the very existence of Venetian colourism. Suddenly, Christ appears at the right, saying, «Follow me». His figure is almost hidden by that of Peter. Christ shows only his face and his right hand, illuminated by a strong light from an undefined source at the upper right.

Despite his oft-expressed contempt for Renaissance masters, Caravaggio often visually, as if in a vernacular translation, quoted Michelangelo BuonarrotI. Christ points along the beam of light with a strikingly real hand whose gesture repeats that of God the Father in the Creation of Adam. Matthew points to his own breast as if to say, «Who, me?» In this realistic scene happens the triumph of divine love. Christ instils a new soul in Matthew.

In 1601 Caravaggio painted the Conversion of Saint Paul. It was a favourite subject during the Counter-Reformation. This scene was usually shown with a vision of Christ descending from heaven, surrounded by clouds and angels. Against a background of nowhere Saul has fallen from his horse toward us, drastically foreshortened. He hears the words; but his servant hears nothing and looks down at his master unable to account for the light that shines all around and has blinded Saul. In this picture climax reaches the stage of cataclysm.

Caravaggio's paintings were condemned by Bolognese artists and critics in Rome, and some were even refused by the clergy. Nonetheless, a decade after his tragic death Caravaggio's everyday naturalism, his hard pictorial style, his intense light-and-dark contrasts had inspired a host of followers in Rome, Naples, Spain, France, the Netherlands. His revolutionary art must be considered a major factor in the formation of two of the greatest painters in the 17-th century Rembrandt and Velazquez.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Caravaggio; Rembrandt; Matthew; Saul; Lombardy; Netherlands


Calling of Saint Matthew – «Призвание апостола Матфея»

Conversion of Saint Paul – «Обращение Савла»

«at the receipt of custom» (Matthew 9:9) – «у сбора пошлин»


I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. Caravaggio's life was happy and eventless.

2. The style of this genius revolutionized European art.

3. Caravaggio never rebelled against convention.

4. The Calling of Saint Matthew is a realistic painting.

5. Saint Paul was pictured drastically foreshortened.

6. Caravaggio's naturalism inspired a great number of followers in Europe.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. Where was Caravaggio trained? What society did Caravaggio live in? What was Caravaggio's relationship with authority?

2. How did Caravaggio protest against convention?

3. How did Caravaggio arrange the figures in the Calling of Saint Matthew? What did Caravaggio deny in this painting?

4. What was Caravaggio's attitude to the Renaissance masters? How did Caravaggio quote Michelangelo in the Calling of Saint Matthew? What was the source of this quotation?

5. What was the favourite subject during the Counter-Reformation? How did Caravaggio picture it? Did Caravaggio paint Saul against a background of nowhere? Was it Caravaggio's greatest achievement? What were his other achievements?

6. How were Caravaggio's paintings treated by artists and critics during his life-time? Did this attitude change after his death?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

a background of nowhere; a hard, firm style; light-and-dark contrasts; pictorial style; drastically foreshortened; a long-life rebel; conventional people; to represent religious scenes in terms of daily life; an unruly genius; to obtain a commission; scenes from smb's life; to represent an event in the soul-stirring way; a background object; to deny the existence of; the realistic scene; Venetian colourism; to quote; gaudily dressed youths; a vernacular translation; the beam of light; to instil a new soul; to descend from heaven; an unidentified source of light; Renaissance masters.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

изображать религиозный сюжет как повседневное событие; луч света; обыватели; венецианский колоризм; перевод на народный язык; вдохнуть новую душу; тяжелый, жесткий стиль; цитирование; изобразительный стиль; свет без указания источника; заказчики отказывались от картин; ниспровергать классические традиции художников Ренессанса; спустя десятилетие; излюбленный сюжет; божественная любовь; нейтральный фон; единственный различимый предмет на заднем плане; реалистические сцены; новаторское искусство.

III. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Caravaggio 's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.

1. Christ points along the beam of light with a strikingly real hand whose gesture repeats that of God the Father in the Creation of Adam.

2. Against a background of nowhere he has fallen from his horse toward us, drastically foreshortened.

a. Conversion of Saint Paul

b. Calling of Saint Matthew

V. Translate the text into English.

Микеланджело Меризи, известный как Караваджо, дал название реалистическому течению в искусстве, которое нашло последователей во всей Западной Европе. Караваджо брал темы из окружающей действительности. Реалистические принципы сделали Караваджо наследником Ренессанса, даже несмотря на то, что он часто выражал свое презрение к великим художникам Ренессанса. Караваджо утверждал принципы реалистического искусства, бросив вызов общепринятым нормам. Картины на религиозные сюжеты он писал как жанровые. Герои произведений Караваджо — картежники, гадалки, авантюристы. Их изображениями Караваджо положил начало бытовой живописи. Караваджо накладывал краску широкими мазками, выхватывая из мрака светом наиболее важные части композиции. Эта контрастность световых пятен создавала атмосферу внутреннего драматизма. Герои Караваджо помещены в простую обстановку. Иногда произведения Караваджо были настолько реалистичны, что заказчики отказывались от них. Искусство Караваджо породило истинных последователей его художественного метода, получившего название «караваджизма».

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Caravaggio's style and characters.

2. Caravaggio's mode of life and work.

3. Caravaggio's artistic legacy.

Unit XI Poussin (1593/94-1665)

Nicolas Poussin is the embodiment of the Classical spirit. His paintings are the product not only of great imagination and pictorial skill but also of a discipline and control that grew firmer as the painter aged. Born in the small town in Normandy, Poussin went to Paris in his late adolescence. He had access to the royal collection of paintings where he was impressed by the works of Raphael and Titian, and to the royal library where he studied engravings after Raphael. After two trips to Italy, Poussin settled down in Rome in 1624. It was unlikely that he would ever enjoy official success. The world of nobles, popes, and monarchs was not for him. Poussin made only one large altarpiece for St. Peter's, and was dissatisfied with it.

An attempt by King Louis XIII to have Poussin work on ceiling painting for the Long Gallery of the Louvre ran afoul of the artist's refusal to consider ceiling paintings different from those on walls, and to turn over the execution of vast projects to assistants. The latter objection ruled out the customary colossal Baroque monumental commissions.

Poussin's paintings reflect his interest in antiquity and in Stoic philosophy. In his early work the Inspiration of the Poet, painted about 1628-29, Classical figures are arranged before a landscape in low afternoon light. Poussin attempted to recapture the magic of Titian through warm colouring unified by soft glazes and through subtle and surprising passages of lights and darks, especially the way light touches the edge of Apollo's lyre and part of his cheek, leaving the rest in shadow. This is an allegorical scene in keeping with seventeenth century ideas, the poet (it is easy to view him as a painter) owes his gifts to divine inspiration. About 1630 an illness gave Poussin a break during which he could formulate the theoretical basis of his art. Poussin abandoned his earlier lyrical style in favour of the grand manner, which required first of all a subject – drawn from religion, history or mythology -that avoided anything 'base' or 'low'. Poussin maintained that the subject must be so clarified in the painter's mind, that he will not block the essence of narrative with insignificant details. Then the painter must consider the conception, that is, the recounting of the story in an impressive way. Then the artist must devise the composition which must not be so carefully constructed that it looks laboured, but should flow naturally. Last comes the style or manner of painting or drawing.

At another point Poussin explained his theory of the modes of painting by analogy with the modes or scales in Greek music, and mentioned five, the Dorian, the Phrygian, the Lydian, the Hypolydian and the Ionic. He carried his ideas of the modes systematically into execution. His Rape of the Sabines, of about 1636-37, exemplifies the Phrygian mode adapted to 'frightful wars'. The picture fulfils all Poussin's requirements for the grand manner. The subject is lofty; the conception is powerful; the composition effortless and natural for all its references to ancient and Renaissance statuary figures and groups; and the style beyond all praise. The composition is staged in a limited space, flanked on one side by the temple portico in which Romulus stands and limited at the rear by a basilica.

A later work, the Holy Family on the Steps, of 1648, is probably in the Hypolydian mode, which 'contains within itself a certain sweetness which fills the soul of the beholders with joy. It lends itself to divine matters, glory and Paradise'. The pyramidal composition suggests the Madonna groups of Leonardo and Raphael which Poussin knew and studied. Like Tintoretto, he arranged little draped wax figures on a stage with the lightning carefully controlled and with a backdrop of landscape and architecture. He would experiment with figural relationships till he found the right grouping, then build a larger arrangement of modelled and draped figures and paint from it, referring to reality only when necessary. The grave, ideal quality of Poussin's art triumphs in Classical compositions arranged before simple, cubic architecture that bypasses the Baroque, the Renaissance, and the Middle Ages, going straight back to Roman models. While the faces of his figures often appear standardized and almost expressionless, the grandeur of Poussin's art appears in the balance of forms, colour, and lights. Such compositions inspired Ingres in the early 19-th century, formed the basis for the still life and figure paintings of Cezanne in the late 19-th and early 20-th centuries.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Poussin; Normandy; lyre; Paris; Louvre; Greek; Dorian; Phrygian; Lydian; Hypolydian; Ionic; Sabines; Cezanne


Inspiration of the Poet- «Вдохновение поэта»

Rape of the Sabines – «Похищение Сабинянок»

Holy Family on the Steps – «Святое семейство на ступенях храма»


I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. Nicolas Poussin embodies the Renaissance spirit.

2. Poussin made a lot of altarpieces.

3. Poussin was fond of ceiling painting.

4. Poussin invented five modes or scales in music.

5. Poussin formulated the theoretical basis of his art in 1648.

6. Poussin worked in the grand manner early in life.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. What do Poussin's paintings reflect?

2. What did Poussin attempt to recapture in the Inspiration of the Poett?

3. What were the main theoretical principles of Poussin's art? How did Poussin connect painting and music?

4. With what Poussin's painting is the Phrygian mode associated? Why? What is the subject of this painting?

5. Why is the Holy Family on the Steps associated with the Hypolydian mode? Whose influence can be traced in this painting?

6. How did Poussin paint his monumental compositions? Where does Poussin's art triumph? Where does its grandeur appear? Who was inspired by Poussin's compositions?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

the embodiment of the Classical spirit; pictorial skill; the royal collection of paintings; the theory of modes; to study engravings; to work on ceiling painting; by analogy with; the execution of vast projects; colossal Baroque monumental commissions; the interest in antiquity; to arrange figures before a landscape; passages of lights and darks; statuary figures; an allegorical scene; to be in keeping with; to owe one's gifts to; divine inspiration; to formulate a theoretical basis of; to abandon the lyrical style; wax figures; the essence of narrative; insignificant details; to bypass the Baroque; to devise a composition; the manner of painting.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

интерес к античности; по аналогии с; божественное вдохновение; лира Аполлона; создать алтарный образ; обращаться к действительности; избегать низкого в искусстве; отказаться от лирического стиля; в соответствии с идеалами; восковые фигуры; вдохновлять художников; воплощение духа классицизма; претворить в жизнь грандиозные планы; расписывать потолок; сформулировать основы теории классицизма; теория музыкальных ладов; незначительные детали; торжество композиции классицизма.

III. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

IV. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) expound; soft; monarch; rule out; subtle; analogy;

b) sovereign; exclude; smooth; interpret; faint; comparison.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Poussin's works of art. Match them up to the given titles and describe them.

1. It contains within itself a certain sweetness which fills the soul of the beholders with joy.

2. The light touches Apollo's lyre and part of his cheek

3 The subject is lofty, the conception is powerful, the composition effortless and natural.

a. Rape of the Sabines

b. Holy Family on the Steps

c. Inspiration of the Poet

V. Translate the text into English.

Никола Пуссен – создатель классического направления в живописи. Предметом искусства классицизма провозглашалось только прекрасное; идеалом классицизма служила античность. Пуссен интересовался античным искусством и искусством Возрождения. В 1623 г. Пуссен отправился в Италию. С 1624 г. он жил в Риме. Влияние караваджизма чувствуется в некоторых работах Пуссена. Темы полотен художника разнообразны: мифология, история. Ветхий Завет, Новый Завет. В начале 40-х годов в творчестве Пуссена произошел перелом.

В 1640 г. Пуссен приехал в Париж по приглашению короля Людовика XIII. Первый период творчества Пуссена завершился, когда в буколические темы ворвалась тема смерти. В 40-50-е годы колористическая гамма Пуссена становится все сдержанней. Основное внимание уделяется рисунку и скульптурности форм. Лучшими у позднего Пуссена остаются пейзажи, в которых человек трактуется как часть природы.

vi Summarize the text.

viI Topics for discussion

1. The theoretical basis ofPoussin's art.

2. The role of music in Poussin's paintings.

3. Poussin's artistic influence.

Unit XII Rubens (1577-1640)

Peter Paul Rubens exercised in Flanders a great stylistic authority. Born near Cologne, the son of a Protestant emigre from Antwerp, he spent his childhood in Germany. He received a thorough grounding in Latin and in theology, spent a few months as a page to a countess, and grew up as an unparalleled combination of scholar, diplomat and painter. Rubens spoke and wrote six modern languages, and was probably the most learned artist of all time. His house in Antwerp was a factory from which massive works emerged in a never-ending stream. Although most paintings were designed by Rubens in rapidly painted colour sketches on wood, all the large ones were painted by pupils and then retouched by the master.

Rubens was the man of extraordinary character and intelligence. One visitor recounted how Rubens could listen to a reading of Roman history in Latin, carry on a learned conversation, paint a picture, and dictate a letter all at the same time.

Rubens first emerged on the international scene during his visit to Italy in 1600 where he remained for eight years. Artistically Rubens was an adopted Italian, with little interest in the Early Netherlandish masters. With indefatigable energy he set out to conquer the fortress of Italian art. He made hundreds of drawings and scores of copies after Roman sculpture as well as paintings.

An early work in Antwerp Cathedral, the Raising of the Cross, a panel more than fifteen feet high, painted in 1609-10, shows the superhuman energy with which Rubens attacked his mighty concepts. This central panel of a triptych is a complete picture in itself. There is no hint of Caravaggio's psychological interests. The executioners, whose muscularity recalls Michelangelo's figures, raise the Cross, forming a colossal pyramid of struggling figures. In this painting the typical High Renaissance interfigural composition is transformed into a Baroque climax.

The power of Rubens can be seen at its greatness in the Fall of the Damned, painted about 1614-18, a waterspout of hurling figures raining down from Heaven, from which the rebels against divine love are forever excluded.

As his style matured, Rubens's characteristic spiral-into-the-picture lost the dark shadows of his early works and took on a Titianique richness of colour.

In 1621-25 Rubens carried out asplendid commission from Maria de'Medici, dowager Queen of France, widow of Henry iv, and regent during the minority of her son Louis XIII. Twenty one large canvases represent an allegorized version of the Queen career, showing her protected at every point by the divinities of Olympus. The series were originally installed in a ceremonial gallery in the Luxembourg Palace. All the canvases show the magnificence of Rubens's compositional inventiveness and the depth of his Classical learning; but Henry iv Receiving the Portrait of Maria de ' Medici is one of the best. The ageing King, whose helmet and shield are taken by Cupids, is advised by Minerva to accept as his second bride the Florentine princess, whose portrait is presented by Mercury, as Juno and Jupiter smile upon the proposed union. The happy promise of divine intervention; the youthful figure; the grandeur of the armoured king, and the distant landscape make this painting one of the happiest of Rubens's allegorical works. The Queen never paid for the series. But when she was driven out of France by her former protege Cardinal Richelieuw, she took refuge in Flanders. Rubens helped to support her during her twelve years of exile – a remarkable tribute not only to the generosity of a great man but also to the position of a Baroque artist who could finance a luckless monarch.

In 1630, then 53 years old Rubens married Helene Fourment, a girl of 16. The artist's happiness received its perfect embodiment in the Garden of Love painted about 1638, a fantasy in which seven of the Fourment sisters are happily disposed throughout the foreground before the fantastic fountain-house in Rubens's own garden in Antwerp. Cupids fly above the scene with bows, arrows, a rose garland, and torches, and on the right sits a statue of Venus astride a dolphin. All the movements of Rubens's colour, all the energy of his composition are summed up in the radiance of the picture, the happiest Baroque testament to the redeeming power of love.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the/allowing words:

Antwerp; Luxembourg; Cologne; Protestant; emigre; Medici; dowager; protege; Richelieuw; Minerva; Flanders; Louis; regent


Raising of the Cross – «Воздвижение креста»

Fall of the Damned – «Падение проклятых»

Garden of Love – «Сад наслаждений»


I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. Peter Paul Rubens was the most educated person of his time.

2. Rubens was fond of High Renaissance masters.

3. As Rubens's style matured, it took on a richness of colour.

4. Rubens's figures were disembodied and mystical.

5. In 1621-25 Rubens carried out a splendid commission from Louis XIII.

6. Rubens depicted the major Roman gods in the portrait of Maria de' MedicI.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. When and where did Rubens first emerge on the international scene? Where was Rubens educated?

2. What could Rubens allegedly do at one and the same time? How did Rubens produce his works of art?

3. What is represented in the Raising of the Cross? What kind of painting is it? Where can the power of Rubens be seen? What is depicted in this painting?

5. How did the Michelangelo and the Titian influence Rubens's works of art? In what way did Rubens's works differ from the masterpieces of the Renaissance masters?

6. What do twenty one large canvases present? What is the best painting? What does it portray? What gods and goddesses are depicted there? How are they shown? What do they symbolize? What makes this painting one of the happiest of Rubens's allegorical works? How long did Rubens support the dowager Queen of France? What did it show?

7. What is represented in the Garden of Love? What received its full embodiment in this picture?

III. I. Give Ritssian equivalents of the following phrases:

to exercise a great stylistic authority; a page to a countess; a never-ending stream of works; colour sketches on wood; a helmet and a shield; to emerge on the international scene; indefatigable energy; to raise the Cross; to make copies after Roman sculpture; the superhuman energy; the central panel of a triptych; to carry out a commission; dowager Queen of France; to be protected at every point by the divinities; a ceremonial gallery in the palace; conipositional inventiveness; Classical learning; the divine intervention; the years of exile; executioners; a tribute to; a Baroque artist; to receive its embodiment in; the Baroque testament; the energy of the composition; final coating; the redeeming power of love; Caravaggio's psychological interests; a complete picture in itself; a pyramid of struggling figures.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

появиться на международной арене; монументальные произведения; годы ссылки; композиционная изобретательность; классическое образование; неуемная энергия; пользоваться большим авторитетом; нескончаемый поток работ; быть защищенным со всех сторон божествами; самостоятельная картина; палачи; сделать множество рисунков; копировать древнеримские статуи; центральная часть триптиха; выполнить заказ; вклад в; могущественный заказчик; парадная галерея дворца; божественное вмешательство; получить воплощение в; напоминать фигуры Микеланджело; искупляющая сила любви; богатство цвета; вдовствующая королева; цветные наброски на дереве.

III. Make up questions with the given phrases.

IV. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms.

a) regent; to recount; testament; canvas; splendid; executioner;

b) murderer; queen; magnificent; to tell; picture; will.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Rubens's works of art. Match them up to the given titles…

1. Cupids fly above the scene with bows, arrows, and torches,

2. Grotesque figures rain down from Heaven.

3. The executioners form a colossal pyramid.

4. The gods advise the King to accept her as his second bride.

a. Henry iv Receiving the Portrait of Maria de' Medici

b. Raising of the Cross

c. Garden of Love

d. Fall of the Damned

V. Translate the text into English.

Питер Паул Рубенс, крупнейший фламандский художник XVII в., был одним из самых образованных людей своего времени. Первые годы своей творческой жизни Рубенс провел в Италии. В Венеции он изучал работы Тициана, в Риме – произведения Микеланджело. В Италии Рубенс быстро стал знаменитым. С 1601 г. он – придворный художник герцога Гон-зага в Мантуе. В 1608 г. Рубенс вернулся на родину во Фландрию. Он много работал над монументальными произведениями. На одном из них – алтарном образе «Воздвижение креста» – изображен распятый Христос. В 1621-1625 гг. Рубенс получил заказ на цикл из 21 картины «Жизнь Марии Медичи» от французской королевы, вдовы Генриха iv, для украшения Люксембургского дворца. Это – блистательное творение монументально-декоративного искусства. Здесь наряду с аллегорическими образами и мифологическими персонажами Рубенс изобразил реальные исторические лица.

Искусство Рубенса – типичное выражение барокко. Художник часто писал картины на сюжеты античных мифов. Рубенс оказал большое влияние на последующее развитие западноевропейского искусства.

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Rubens's mode of life and production system.

2. Rubens's style and characters.

3. Rubens as a Baroque painter.

Unit XIII Velazquez (1599-1660)

Diego Rodriguez de Silva у Velazquez was the greatest Spanish painter. Born in Seville, Velazquez studied with the local Mannerist Francisco Pacheco. In 1623 Velazquez was appointed court painter and settled permanently in Madrid. By 1627 he was established in the royal household and got the rank of court chamberlain. It gave him a residence attached to the palace and a studio inside it. For more than 30 years Velazquez painted King Philip iv and members of the royal family and court, produced historical, mythological, and religious pictures. His paintings were influenced by Rubens and the Venetian artists.

Velazquez never deserted the integrity of his own style. He did not adopt the characteristic devices of allegorical figures, columns, curtains of boiling clouds utilized by most Catholic painters of the seventeenth century. Velazquez was attached to nature.

He visited Italy twice and expressed a frank dislike for Raphael and thus for the Italian idealism. Velazquez admired Titian and copied Tintoretto as an exercise in freedom of the brush. Throughout his life Velazquez was deeply concerned with the principles of composition and design.

When Caravaggesques realism penetrated Spain, it was felt by the young Velazquez as a liberation. Velazquez's interpretation of this movement was original. His Triumph of Bacchus, of about 1628, contains numerous reminiscences of Titian's Bacchanal of the Andrians, reinterpreted in basically Caravaggesques terms. Bacchus is a rather soft Spanish youth, with a towel and a cloak around his waist, as if he had just climbed out of a neighbouring stream. Crowned with wine leaves himself he mischievously puts a crown upon a kneeling worshiper, who is a simple Spanish peasant. Other peasants are gathered around. One peasant with bristling moustache and a hat pushed back hands a cup of wine toward a spectator, while another tries to grab it. The proletarian invitation to join in the delights of wine is painted with a brilliance unequalled by any other Latin painter of the seventeenth century. Yet the emphasis of the solidity of flesh and rough clothing shows that Velazquez is a Mediterranean painter.

The Surrender of Breda, of 1635, is a magnificent painting. It is remarkable for its excellent equilibrium. The groups of Spanish victors and defeated Dutchmen are scrupulously equalized. The surrender is carried out with dignity unlike in the conventional representations of the glorification of the victors and the disgrace of the conquered.

After the second trip to Italy (1649-51) Velazquez painted his most complex imaginary picture, based on the myth of Arachne, The Weavers, c.1656. The central scene, the moment when Minerva turns Arachne, a mortal girl who challenged the goddess of spinning and weaving to a contest, into a spider — is depicted in the background. In the foreground the weaver's workroom is produced so convincingly that in later centuries this painting was taken for a large genre scene. The emotion of the workshop, the spinning of the wheel, the handling of the tale as an ordinary event, make this painting one of the most outstanding of Velazquez's mythological works.

Velazquez's masterpiece, and one of the most extraordinary paintings of the seventeenth century is Las Meninas (The Ladies-in-waiting), of 1656. It was initially titled The Portrait of the Family. The painter is depicted in his studio in the royal palace, at work upon a canvas, so large that it can only be this very picture, unique in scale in his entire production. In the centre the light falls on the glittering figure of the five-year-old princess, who has paid the painter a visit, accompanied by two ladies-in-waiting, one of whom kneels to give her a cup of water. On the right two dwarfs are portrayed; one is gently teasing with his foot an elderly dog. Through the open door in the background wall light falls on a court official, pausing for a moment, on the steps. Most important of all the mirror alongside the door reflects the King and Queen. who also honour the painter with their presence. Despite the apparent ease and informality of the subject, the picture is carefully balanced in a series of interlocking pyramids that can be ranked with the greatest designs of the Renaissance. In light and dark the illusion of the picture is as real as the intimate and quiet mood. Velazquez's brush suggests the reality of objects through the sparks and reflections of light on hair, silk, flowers and embroidery, spots of light and colour set down by touches of the brush create the illusion of form. Las Meninas is the culmination of Velazquez's work. In this painting the artist demonstrates to all time the nobility of his art – a rank that no king can award.

Velazquez had no immediate followers, but the painters of succeeding centuries such as Goya and Manet highly esteemed him.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Velazquez; Madrid; Seville; Philip; Mediterranean; crown; Order; Santiago; Chamberlain; Arachne; Goya; Manet


Triumph of Bacchus – «Вакх»

Surrender of Breda – «Сдача Бреды»

The Weavers – «Пряхи»

Las Meninas – «Менины»


I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the following statements true or false

1. For twenty years Velazquez painted King Philip iv and members of the royal family and court.

2. Velazquez adopted the characteristic machinery of allegorical figures, utilized by most Catholic painters of the seventeenth century.

3. Velazquez's Triumph of Bacchus contains numerous reminiscences of the Nertherlandish masters.

4. The Surrender of Breda is a work of universal importance.

5. In The Weavers the central scene is depicted in the foreground.

6. In Las Meninas Velazquez shows the nobility of his art.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. Where was Velazquez trained? What position did he obtain at the court?

2. Whose works did Velazquez distaste and whose paintings did he admire? What did Caravaggesques realism mean to Velazquez?

3. What did Velazquez depict in the Triumph of Bacchus? What shows that Velazquez is a Mediterranean painter?

4. What is pictured in the Surrender of Breda? In what way does it differ from other pictures of this kind?

5. What makes The Weavers Velazquez's most complex allegorical painting? What legend was the basis of this work of art?

6. What does Las Meninas portray? What makes Las Meninas Velazquez's masterpiece? What are the figures depicted in this picture doing? What is Las Meninas (a group portrait, a self-portrait or a genre painting)?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

to be appointed court painter; to settle permanently in; royal household; to get the rank of; Court Chamberlain; a residence attached to the palace; members of the royal family and court; the integrity of one's style; the characteristic devices; allegorical figures; to be attached to nature; freedom of the brush; throughout the life; principles of composition; Caravaggesques realism; numerous reminiscences; a Mediterranean painter; to fall under the influence of; the studio in the royal palace; to work upon a canvas; to create the illusion of form unique in scale; to pay the painter a visit; dwarfs; to honour the painter with the presence; informality of the subject; interlocking pyramids.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

целостность стиля; иллюзия формы; члены королевской семьи и двора; принципы композиции и рисунка; предшествующий век; получить должность; придворный художник; ряд пересекающихся пирамид; карлики; в светотени; аллегорические образы; типичные атрибуты; гофмейстер; свобода мазка; многочисленные цитаты из; постоянно поселиться в; трактовка направления; средиземноморский художник; уникальная по масштабу картина; почтить своим присутствием студию художника.

III. Make up sentences ofyour own with the given phrases.

IV. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) local; court; trip; interpret; supreme; reminiscences; dwarfs; demonstrate; appoint; attain;

b) royal household; render; exquisite; quotations; Lilliputians; show; place; gain; journey; native.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Velazquez's works of art. Match them up to the given titles…

1. The mirror alongside the door re- flects the King and Queen, who honour the painter with their presence.

2. Crowned with wine leaves himself he mischievously puts a crown upon a kneeling worshiper.

3. The painting is noted for its clas- sical equilibrium.

4. This painting is one of the most significant of Velazquez's mythological works.

a. Triumph of Bacchus

b. Surrender of Breda

c. The Weavers

d. Las Meninas

V. Translate the text into English.

Диего Родригос де Сильва Веласкес – выдающийся художник «золотого испанского века», родился в Севилье, учился у местного художника Франсиско Пачеко.

В 1626 г. Веласкес переехал в Мадрид и стал придворным художником короля Филиппа IV. В 1627 г. художник получил звание гофмейстера. После знакомства с Рубенсом, который посетил Испанию в 1628 г. Веласкес отправился в Италию, где провел три года. Работы итальянских художников оказали большое влияние на Веласкеса. Его стиль стал более свободным и блестящим, колорит менее темным в тенях.

В конце 20-х годов Веласкес написал картину «Вакх». Эту мифологическую сцену он интерпретировал как жанровую. Идеализации нет даже в фигуре самого Вакха. Контрасты света и тени, золотистый тон – все типичные черты караваджизма, переплетаются с характерными только для Веласкеса чертами.

В последнее десятилетие жизни художник написал три самых известных картины: «Венера с зеркалом», «Менины», «Пряхи». «Менины» – это, по своей сути, групповой портрет. Художник, а это автопортрет самого Веласкеса, у мольберта пишет короля и королеву, отражение которых зрители видят в зеркале. На переднем плане изображена инфанта Маргарита в окружении фрейлин, карлицы, придворных и собаки. В дверях художник поместил фигуру канцлера. Композиция картины объединяет черты группового портрета и жанровой картины. Влияние Веласкеса на искусство последующих веков велико. Он вдохновлял художников от романтиков до постимпрессионистов.

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Velazquez's realism.

2. Velazquez's artistic heritage.

Unit XIV The 'Little Masters'

The open market system, under which Dutch pictures were sold, produced artists skilful in painting a particular type of subject. They specialized in landscapes, riverscapes, seascapes, city-scapes, travelscapes; skating scenes, moonlight scenes, shipping and naval battles; interiors, exteriors; gardens, polite conversations, parlour intrigue, housekeeping, tavern brawls; hunting scenes, churches, still lifes and portraits, single, double, or group.

At least forty of the 'little masters' are very talented.

An early leader of Dutch landscape painting, Jan van Goyen (1596-1656), was one of the Dutch masters to place human figures to a position in which they could no longer determine the mood of a scene but merely establish the scale. Van Goyen was fascinated by water. But the celestial architecture of shifting clouds was even more important than water in his landscapes. In River Scene, painted by Van Goyen shortly before his death, the land with fishermen's cottages, windmills, and a distant church, is visible only in tiny patches. All else is clouds and water, save for two boats moving slowly toward the centre. People are mere spots, as are the flying gulls. An almost monochromatic vision, limited to translucent browns in the foreground and grey greens elsewhere, is registered by means of light, shimmering water, and distant land.

A View of Haarlem, of about 1670, by Jacob van Ruisdael (1628/29-82), opens up an immense prospect from the vantage point of the dunes. The city appears only on the flat horizon, a sparkle of windmills and spires is dominated by the mass of the Great Church. The immensity of the space is increased by the light falling from between clouds on the farmhouses and the linens whitening in the foreground. The birds fly higher and the clouds seem more remote than in Van Goyen's picture.

One of the greatest Dutch landscapes is the Avenue at Middelbarnis, of 1689, by Meyndert Hobbema (1638-1709), Ruisdael's pupil. Constructed on the humble theme of a rutted country road plunging into the picture between feathery trees that have long lost lower branches for use as firewood, the spatial climax is compelling.

Albert Cuyp (1620-91), influenced by Dutch painters who had travelled in Italy, preserves a similar feeling for space in his Landscape with Cattle and Figures, of about 1650, which is intensified by the animals and people grouped in the foreground.

The art of Pieter De Hooch (1629-after 1684) glorifies the harmony of the perfect bourgeois household, with everything in its proper place and respect for cleanliness and order raised almost to a religious level. The Linen Cupboard, of 1663, is De Hooch's Baroque climax. In this picture, illuminated by an unseen window, De Hooch depicts the simple act of counting neatly folded sheets taken from their carved and inlaid cabinet in an interior whose cleanliness matches its perfect perspective and its clear bright colour; the black-and-white marble floor leads the eye through the door to the view across the street. By means of pictures on the wall the painter shows that art is a part of the ideal daily life.

The opposite of De Hooch's religious order is the disorder of Jan Steen (1625/26-79), who revived the humour of the Late Gothic burlesque. To this day a «Jan Steen household» is the Dutch expression for a house in which nothing goes right. Everything goes wrong in The World Upside Down, which is a parody on De Hooch's Linen Cupboard. It was also intended as a moralizing picture. Jan Steen, who kept a tavern, was never tired of representing the effects of visits to him. Here the scene shifts to the kitchen; the same lady of the house in the same costume as in De Hooch's Linen Cupboard has fallen asleep; beer runs from the keg over a floor strewn with garbage, a pipe and a hat; children, a pig, a dog, a duck, and a monkey are where they ought not to be and are doing what they ought not to do. The housemaid hands a glass of wine to her sweetheart, nobody pays any attention to an elderly man reading from a book or to an old woman trying to bring some order into the situation. To intensify the effect, Steen is treating his figures with conviction and vigour.

Dutch still lifes were often intended to appeal to the eye and the palate at once. Some are crowded with an unappetizing profusion of fruit or game, but the most tasteful and tasty are those restricted to the makings of between-meals snacks (they are traditionally referred to as 'breakfast pieces'). White wine, a bit of seafood or ham, lemon, pepper, and salt are the subjects, along with polished silver, crystal goblets and a rumpled tablecloth. The spectator is tantalized not only by the delicacy with which the carefully selected objects arc painted, but also by the expensive carelessness with which a lemon has been left partly peeled and a silver cup overturned.

Willem Heda (1599-1680/82) was the master of still life. In his Still Life, despite limitations of subject matter, he demonstrates an unexpected eloquence in the rendering of golden light, as well as sensitivity in establishing the precise relationships between transparent, translucent, reflecting, and mat surfaces – a silent drama of pure sense presented in the style of a Caravaggio religious scene against the typical background of nowhere, fluctuating between shadow and light.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Hobbema; Hals; Cuyp; Ruisdael; Haarlem; genre; burlesque; fluctuate; eloquence; palate; horizon; tantalise; monochrome


I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. Jan van Goyen placed figures to a dominant position.

2. Heda's still-lifes are referred to as «breakfast pieces».

3. De Hooch represented genre scenes of the lower classes life.

4. Jacob van Ruisdael was the best Dutch landscape painter.

5. To this day a «Jan Steen household» is the Dutch expression for the harmony of the perfect bourgeois household.

6. One of the greatest Dutch landscapes is the Avenue at Middelbarnis by Meyndert Hobbema.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. What system produced the «little masters»? In what did they specialize? Were all the «little masters» of high quality?

2. What was Jan van Goyen famous for? What did he like to paint? What is Van Goyen's masterpiece? What is depicted in this picture?

3. What did Jacob van Ruisdael paint in 1670? What is this landscape noted for? How is the immensity of the space increased?

4. What did Albert Cuyp paint in 1650? How did he intensify the space?

5. What is represented in the Linen Cupboard? How did De Hooch render the religious order of the bourgeois life? What did the painter show by means of pictures on the wall?

6. What kind of picture is the World Upside Down? What does it demonstrate?

7. What do Dutch still lifes depict? Who was one of the chief practitioners of Dutch still lifes? What did he demonstrate in his paintings? What did he establish?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

genre scenes; a sense of composition and colour; translucent browns; still life; polished silver; the harmony of the bourgeois household; to establish the relationships between transparent and mat surfaces; vantage point; to be of extremely high quality; the realm of space and light; to appeal to the eye and the palate; to determine the mood of the scene; the celestial architecture of shifting clouds; dashing brushwork; windmills and spires; breakfast pieces; to make pictures lively; housemaid; a monochromatic vision; moralizing picture; carved and inlaid cabinet; according to the compositional principles; sketchy touches of the brush; to handle figures with conviction and power; burlesque; religious scenes; riverscapes; seascapes; travelscapes; hunting scenes.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

оживить картину; стремительные мазки; царство пространства и света; система открытого рынка; «завтраки»; начищенное серебро; жанровая живопись; дорожный пейзаж; переместить сцену на кухню; моралистическая картина; морские битвы; эскизные мазки; специализироваться по отдельным видам тематики; шумные сцены в таверне; небесная архитектура движущихся облаков; чувство композиции и цвета; одноцветная картина; прославлять гармонию буржуазного быта; натюрморт; возродить поздне-готический бурлеск; резной инкрустированный комод; великолепная панорама; место, дающее хороший обзор.

III. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

IV. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) remote; to fluctuate; shimmering; burlesque; transparent; celestial;

b) to wave; distant; glowing; parody; translucent; heavenly.

IV. Here are names of the «Little Masters». Match them up to the titles of the paintings. Describe these works of art.

1. Pieter De riooch

2. W i I lem С laesz Heda

3. Jan van Goyen

4. Jan Steen

5. Aelbert Cuyp

6. Meyndert Hobbema

7. Jacob van Ruisdael

a. Landscape with Cattle

b. Still Life

c. Avenue at Middelbarnis

d. A View of Haarlem

e. The World Upside Down

f. Linen Cupboard

g. River Scene

V. Translate the text into English and Figures.

Станковая живопись – основное достижение голландского искусства XVII в. Бытовая живопись стала одним из ведущих жанров. В истории искусства создатели этого жанра называются «малыми голландцами». Голландцы хотели видеть в картинах весь мир. Каждый состоятельный (well-to-do) голландец считал картину лучшим украшением своего жилища. Большой спрос и связанная с этим конкуренция вызвали специализацию художников по отдельным видам тематики: одни писали портреты, другие – жанровые сцены, натюрморты, пейзажи: городские, сельские, дорожные. Расцвет пейзажной живописи в голландской школе относится к середине XVII в. Крупнейшим мастером реалистического пейзажа был Якоб ван Рейсдал.

Наивысшего расцвета достиг натюрморт. Виллем Хеда чаще всего изображает «завтраки»: блюда с окороком или пирогом на скромно сервированном столе. С течением времени «завтраки» Хеды сменяются роскошными «десертами» Калфа. На смену простой утвари приходят мраморные столы, ковровые скатерти, серебряные кубки, хрустальные бокалы.

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Dutch landscape.

2. Dutch genre painting.

3. Dutch still-life.


Unit XV Hals (1581/85-1666)

Recognized today as one of the most brilliant of all portraitists, Frans Hals was probably born in Antwerp and was brought to Haarlem as a child. Interested in human face and figure, Hals was blessed with a gift for catching the individual in a moment of action, feeling, perception, or expression and recording that moment with unerring strokes. Among his early commissions were group portraits of the militia companies that had been largely responsible for defending the new Dutch republic in the hostile world; these paintings radiate its self-confidence and optimism. Hals usually shows the citizen-soldiers in the midst of the banquets. The compositions, picturing a dozen or more males, mostly corpulent and middle-aged, each of whom had paid equally and expected to be recognizable, were not conductive to imaginative painting. The predecessors of Hals had composed these group portraits in alignments hardly superior compositionally to a modern class photograph. It was the genius of Rembrandt to raise them to a level of high drama. But Hals in his Banquet of the Officers of the Saint George Guard Company, of 1616 has a superb job within the limitations of the traditional type. The moment is relaxed, the gentlemen turn toward each other or toward the painter as if he had been painting the whole group at once, which was not certainly the case. Massive Baroque diagonals – the curtain pulled aside, the flag, the poses, the ruffs – tie the picture together into a rich pattern of white and flashing colours against the black costumes. Broad brushstrokes indicate the passage of light on colour with a flash and sparkle unknown even to Rubens.

The warmth of Hals's early style is seen in The Laughing Cavalier. The date 1624 and the subject's age 26 are inscribed in the background, and since the Cavalier's diagonal shadow also falls on it, it is clearly a wall. The Caravaggesque nowhere is thus converted into a definite here. The wall is irradiated with light and seems insubstantial. The armours proclivities of the young man are indicated by the arrows, torches and bees of Cupid and the winged staff and hat of Mercury embroidered in red, silver and gold on the dark brown of his slashed sleeve, with his glowing complexion, dangerous moustaches, snowy ruff and dashing hat, the subject is the symbol of Baroque gallantry. The climax of the painting is the taunting smile on which every compositional force converges.

The opposite of this glittering portrait is the sombre Malle Babbe, of about 1630-33. Nobody knows who the old creature was or the meaning of her nickname. Often called an «old crone» she might be from forty to sixty years old. Hals has caught her in the midst of a fit of insane laughter. Possibly she is a town idiot and the owl on her shoulder is a symbol of foolishness. The expression seized in a storm of strokes is rendered with a demonic intensity.

About 1664 when he was past 80, Hals showed a still different side of his character and ability in the Regentesses of the Old Man's Almshouse. Painted almost entirely in black and white and shades of grey, this solemn picture is united by diagonal movements. The painter had only devastated faces and white collars of the women as component elements. Each of the subjects has reacted in a separate way to age and experience, yet all participate in a calm acceptance of the effects of time. In its simplicity the composition shows an expressive depth unexpected in the generally excited Hals.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Hals; Haarlem; Antwerp; cavalier; banquet; regentess


Banquet of the Officers of the Saint George Guard Company – «Портрет офицеров гильдии святого Георгия»

The Laughing Cavalier – «Портрет молодого офицера»

Malle Babbe – «Мале Бабе»

Regentesses of the Old Man's Almshouse – «Регентши приюта для престарелых»


I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false

1. Today Hals is recognized as the most brilliant portraitist.

2. Hals shows citizen-soldiers in the midst of the banquets.

3. Malle Babbe is a glittering portrait.

4. The warmth of Hals's early style is seen in the Regentesses of the Old Man's Almshouse.

5. The Laughing Cavalier is the symbol of Baroque gallantry.

6. The subjects of the Regentesses of the Old Man's Almshouse participate in a calm acceptance of the effects of time.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. What gift was Hals blessed with?

2. What were Hals's early commissions? Why were not Hals's portraits conductive to imaginative painting? How did Hals's predecessors compose their group portraits? Who could raise group portraits to a level of high drama?

3. What is the Banquet of the Officers of the Saint George Guard Company noted for? What has Hals pictured in this work of art? What ties the picture together?

4. Where is the warmth of Hals's early style seen? How old is the subject? What makes the subject the symbol of Baroque gallantry? How did Hals interpret the Caravaggesque nowhere?

5. What is the opposite of The Laughing Cavalier? When was it painted? Whom has Hals depicted in it?

6. In what painting did Hals show a different side of his character? How old was he at that time? What did the painter show in this work?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

to catch the individual in a moment of action; group portraits in alignments; unerring strokes; a moment of perception; to be blessed with the gift; effects of time; to radiate one's self-confidence; Caravaggesque nowhere; a slashed sleeve; sketchy brushstrokes; armours proclivities; a taunting smile; to be irradiated with light; snowy ruff; a dashing hat; devastated faces; to be conductive to; the predecessors of the painter; show the citizen-soldiers in the midst of the banquets; to raise the portraits to a level of high drama; to tie the picture together; a glittering portrait; militia companies; a solemn picture; component elements.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

опустошенные лица; быть наделенным даром; широкие мазки; сияющий портрет; лихо заломленная шляпа; круглый плоеный жесткий воротник; стрелковые гильдии; предшественники художника; след времени; полные, средних лет мужчины; связать картину воедино; насмешливая улыбка; изображать стрельцов в разгар веселого застолья; склонность к военному искусству; сиять самоуверенностью; групповой портрет, построенных в шеренгу людей; рукав с разрезами; эскизная манера письма; поздний период творчества; поднять на уровень драмы.

III. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

IV. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) strokes; radiate; traditional; indicate; predecessor;

b) conventional; precursor; brushwork; shimmer; show.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Hals's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.

1. The model was caught in the midst of a fit of insane laughter.

2. The painter had only devastated faces and white collars of the figures as component elements.

3. The climax of the painting is the taunting smile.

4. Broad brushstrokes indicate the passage of light on colour with a flash and sparkle unknown even to Rubens.

a. The Laughing Cavalier

b. Banquet of the Officers of the Saint George Guard Company

c. Regentesses of the Old Man's Almshouse

d. Malle Babbe

V. Translate the text into English.

Франс Халс – крупнейший портретист Голландии XVII в. Халс написал серию групповых портретов. Это в основном изображения членов добровольных стрелковых гильдий города Гарлема. «Портрет офицеров гильдии святого Георга» (1616) является одним из лучших. Яркие краски, непринужденное расположение фигур – нравились современникам Халса. С полотен смотрят плотные, уверенные в своих силах люди средних лет. Халс изображает их обычно в товарищеской пирушке. Групповые портреты Халса – одно из высших достижений голландской живописи.

Индивидуальные портреты Халса носят черты жанровой картины. Лучшим примером этого является портрет старухи, «гарлемной ведьмы», Малле Баббе, с совой на плече. Эскизная манера была типична для Халса. Незадолго до смерти Халс написал два групповых портрета обитателей приюта для престарелых, в одном из которых он окончил свои дни. На портретах изображены старые люди, покорившиеся времени. Монохромный колорит портретов создает особый трагизм, подчеркивая драматизм судьбы самого больного, одинокого и нищего художника, создавшего свои самые драматические произведения на девятом десятке жизни.

Искусство Халса имело большое значение для развития портрета, бытового жанра, пейзажа и натюрморта в целом.

VI. Summarize the text.

Vll. Topics for discussion.

1. Hals's style and characters.

2. Hals's artistic achievements.

Unit XVI Rembrandt (1608-1669)

Rembrandt van Rijn is the greatest Dutch master, one of the supreme geniuses in the history of art. To this day the art of Rembrandt remains one of the most profound witnesses of the progress of the soul in its earthly pilgrimage toward the realization of a higher destiny. The son of a prosperous miller, Rembrandt was born in Leiden in 1608. He was trained as a painter by two minor local artists. His rapid success promoted him to move to Amsterdam in 1631.

In 1632 Rembrandt's worldly success was assured. He had more commissions and pupils than he could accept. He married Suskia van Uylenburg, the lovely daughter of a wealthy family. He bought a splendid house, started a collection of paintings and rarities.

The universal artist dealt with many world subjects. Rembrandt painted, engraved and drew more than eighty self-portraits. Rembrandt was a master of portraiture. He created around fifty portraits.

The best group portraits painted by Rembrandt are the Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, of 1632, and The Night Watch, of 1642. In the former Rembrandt has not only painted faces, beards and lace ruffles, he has given the composition a new drama. Mystery dominates in his painting, reminding the living of their own inevitable destiny. As for The Night Watch, the members of the Company of Captain F. B. Cocq were dissatisfied with the colossal group portrait. The subject of the painting is the formation of the militia company for a parade. Through wonderful effective lightning Rembrandt has turned a narrative prose into a dramatic poetry. Real events are submerged in the symphonic tide of the colouring. All the men paid equally to have themselves depicted, yet some are sunk in a shadow, one man is concealed except for his eyes. It was inevitable that Rembrandt would lose popularity as a portrait painter, although not at once.

In Amsterdam Rembrandt began to paint in a highly imaginative Baroque style. He was influenced by Caravaggio's sharp light-and-dark contrasts and by Rubens's spiral compositions. A brilliant example of this is the Angel Leaving Tobit and Tobias, of 1637. Rembrandt has followed the book of Tobit available to him as a source in the Apocrypha. The formerly blind Tobit cured by the Archangel Raphael, prostrates himself in gratitude, while his son Tobias looks upward in wonder at the departing figure. Seen sharply from the back the angel is taken from the sight into an open cloud in a flash of light. Along with luminary effects goes a new technical freedom. The smooth, detailed early manner is gone. The forms are quickly sketched.

In 1642 Saskia died. Rembrandt's commissions slackened off as a result of his unconventional painting. In 1655 Rembrandt found himself in the midst of several financial troubles. At that period he painted The Polish Rider. The precise meaning of this painting has not been determined. Probably it is an allegory of the man's earthly journey, its many dangers and uncertain destination. In the grim and rocky valley a pool can be seen. Against the dark hill there is a hut. Near the crest there is a ruined castle. The youth rides in light, alert, with his weapons at ready. The figure and his horse stand forth in a new sculptural grandeur, intensified by the fact that many of the impastos have been laid on with a palette knife. The artist carved the pigments, especially in the dark rocks and the bony forms of the horse.

Etching played a special role in Rembrandt's vast production. He produced more than 290 etchings. For him it was an independent art form. The painter was unique in exploring various etching techniques. His etchings differed from those of his contemporaries in the loose, freehand style. Rembrandt had a large collection of drawings and prints by other artists including Man-tegna, Carracci, Titian, Raphael and Bruegel. He used their works for inspiration, but there was also an element of competition: Rembrandt tried to surpass his predecessors.

Probably in 1669, the year of his own death, Rembrandt painted the Return of the Prodigal Son. This painting stands at the ultimate peak of Christian spirituality, illuminating the relationship of the Self to the Eternity and can be interpreted as union with divine love. This parable was a favourite in the Baroque art. In Rembrandt's dark background one can distinguish two dim faces, a seated figure, and more brightly lighted the law-abiding eldest son. In a spontaneous gesture of loving forgiveness, the gentle, aged father comes into light to press to his bosom the cropped head of his ragged son. Faces are reduced. Only the hands of the father and the tired feet of the son are painted in detail. The painting is an allegory of the earthly pilgrimage of man finding rest and meaning in divine redemption. Rembrandt's language in this work is entirely that of colour and texture. Rich tans and ochres in the prodigal's worn garments are inundated by the glowing red of his father's festal cloak against the deep brown of the encompassing dark; solid masses in thick impastos gleam against the translucent glazed.

The biblical theme was very important to Rembrandt. In 1634 the artist created the Holy Family, John the Baptist Preaching, Ecce Homo. In Ecce Homo Jesus stands before Pilate, the procurator, the man who is to judge him. Pilate, convinced of Christ's innocence, presents him to the people with the words «See, the man!» – in Latin: «Ecco Homo». But the people and the priests cry out that Jesus must be crucified. The Passion of Christ was a popular subject. Rembrandt painted a series of seven pictures illustrating this episode. Abraham's Sacrifice was produced by Rembrandt in 1635. In Christ Appearing to Mary Magdalen, of 1638, Rembrandt shows Mary's shock of recognition.

Moses Breaking the Tablets was created in 1659. The Old Testament recounts that Moses led the children of Israel out of Egypt and through the wilderness. At Mount Sinai he received God's laws – the Ten Commandments – written on 'stone tablets'. But while Moses was on the mountain the people built an idol: a golden calf. When Moses came down from the mountain he saw the people dancing around the idol. In the anger he smashed the stone tablets. Rembrandt illustrates the moment just before Moses threw down the tablets.

Besides many paintings of biblical scenes Rembrandt took themes from mythology. In Diana Bathing with her Nymphs, with the Stories of Acteon and Callisto, c. 1634, Rembrandt combined two stories taken from Ovid's Metamorphoses. In the Rape of Ganymede, of 1635, the artist shows how Jupiter, turned into an eagle, carries Ganymede off to Olympus, to place him later in the Heavens as one of the signs of the Zodiac, Aquarius.

Rembrandt was not understood in his own life-time. He died in poverty. But it is the spirituality of his art that distinguishes Rembrandt from his Dutch contemporaries and makes him the greatest artist of the world.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Rembrandt; Leiden; Amsterdam; Metamorphoses; commandment; Sinai; Ovid; Pilate; Apocrypha; Abraham; pilgrimage; archangel; Aquarius; Jupiter


Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp – «Урок анатомии доктора Тулпа»

The Night Watch – «Ночной дозор»

The Polish Rider – «Польский всадник»

Return of the Prodigal Son – «Возвращение блудного сына»

Holy Family – «Святое семейство»

John the Baptist Preaching – «Проповедь Иоанна Кресги-теля»

Abraham, 's Sacrifice – «Жертвоприношение Авраама»

Moses Breaking the Tablets – «Моисей, разбивающий скрижали»

Christ Appearing to Mary Magdalen – «Явление Христа Марии Магдалине»

Rape of Ganymede – «Похищение Ганемеда»

Diana Bathing with her Nymphs, with the Stories of Act eon and Callisto -» Диана, купающаяся с нимфами»

Self-Portrait – «Автопортрет»

Suskia van Uylenburg – Саския ван Эйленборх


I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the following statements true or false.

1. Rembrandt painted, engraved and drew more than eighty portraits and fifty self-portraits.

2. The Night Watch by Rembrandt was a traditional portrait of the citizen-soldiers in alignment.

3. Mystery dominates in the Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp.

4. The Return of the Prodigal Son is a brilliant example of the highly imaginative Baroque painting.

5. In the Polish Rider the figure and his horse stand forth in a new sculptural grandeur.

6. Rembrandt was not fond of etching.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. What does Rembrandt's art remain to this day?

2. Was Rembrandt a master of portraiture? What portraits did he create? What are Rembrandt's best group portraits? What dominates in the Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp?

3. What is the subject of The Night Watch Were the commissioners satisfied with this Rembrandt's work of art? What did they expect? How are they depicted?

4. Why did Rembrandt begin to lose popularity as a portraitist?

5. What is the best example of Rembrandt's highly imaginative painting in the Baroque style? What is represented in this painting?

6. What did Rembrandt paint in 1655?

7. How is The Polish Rider interpreted? How is the youth portrayed? What technique did Rembrandt use in this painting?

8. What role did etching play in Rembrandt's production?

9. What does the Return of the Prodigal Son represent? When was it created? How is the painting interpreted?

10. What mythological paintings did Rembrandt execute?

11. What distinguishes Rembrandt from his contemporaries?

III. I. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

a self-portrait; a study; a master of portraiture; to portray the subjects; a shoulder-length portrait; a half-length portrait; life-size pictures; group portraits; effective lightning; a narrative prose; an imaginative style; luminary effects; a parable; a technical freedom; unconventional painting; to lay on the impastos; a palette knife; to carve the pigments; to produce etchings; to surpass the predecessors: 'stone tablets'; colour and texture; rich tans and ochres; the encompassing dark; to gleam against the translucent glazed; spirituality of the art; the Ten Commandments.

II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

скрижали; прокуратор; библейская тема; окружающая чернота; мастихин; техника офорта; превзойти предшественников; законопослушный; создавать офорты; терять популярность; гамма красок; притча; наложение красок густым слоем; сюжетно-тематический; этюд; многочисленные произведения нетрадиционная живопись; изобразительный стиль; автопортрет; портрет во весь рост; поясной портрет; погрудный портрет; групповой портрет; Десять Заповедей.

III. Make up questions with the given phrases.

IV. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms.

a) carve; dim; various; theme; spiritual; law-abiding;

b) chisel; conventional; diverse; subject; dusky; religious.

IV. Insert the missing prepositions. Translate the text…

Saint Paul at his Writing-Desk, was painted by Rembrandt c. 1629/30. The pious Paul was a fervent opponent… the Christian religion… a journey to combat the Christians he was blinded and thrown… a supernatural power. This event changed Paul totally. The enemy… Christianity became Apostle: now he travelled to spread the Word. Here Rembrandt painted St Paul seated… his desk… the corner… a room. His left hand is illuminated… a light coming forth… the book… the desk. This book, and the sword hanging… the wall are the attributes… St. Paul. The sword refers… his beheading, while the book refers… his conversion.

V. Insert the articles whenever necessary. Translate the text…

Rembrandt's Belshazzar's Feast, was created in 1635… Babylonian king Belshazzar is celebrating with his nobles, wives and concubines. Everyone is drinking wine from… vessels stolen from… Temple in Jerusalem. Suddenly… divine hand appears and starts writing… strange script. Daniel was able to decipher… text: which reads, «Mene mene tekel ufarsin»… text in Hebrew letters foretold… death of Belshazzar and… end of his empire… Belshazzar's feast was a warning in… 17-th century usage: profane feasts always end in ruin. Here Rembrandt portrayed… dramatic moment. He was… master when it came to paint violent emotions.

VI. Here are descriptions of some of Rembrandt's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.

1. It is an allegory of the man's earth ly journey.

2. Mystery dominates in this painting, reminding the living of their own inevitable destiny.

3. The angel is taken from the sight into an open cloud.

4. The subject of the painting is the formation of the militia company for a parade.

5. This painting stands at the ultimate peak of Christian spirituality.

6. The text in Hebrew letters foretold the death.

a. Return of the Prodigal Son

b. Angel Leaving Tobit and Tobias

c. The Polish Rider

d. Belshazzar's Feast

e. Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp

f.The Night Watch

VII. Translate the text into English.

Рембрандту ван Рейну удалось раскрыть сложный внутренний мир человека. Рембрандт писал жанровые и религиозные сцены, портреты, автопортреты.

Традиционная для голландского искусства тема группового портрета в картине Рембрандта «Урок анатомии доктора Тульпа» приобретает новый характер. Картина воспринимается не как групповой портрет, а как жизненный эпизод. В «Ночном дозоре» Рембрандт остановился на моменте, когда по сигналу тревоги на площадь выходят стрелки. В результате получился не групповой портрет, а полная жизненной убедительности сцена. Последней наиболее значительной работой художника является «Возвращение блудного сына».

Рембрандт был выдающимся мастером офорта. Его офорты на самые различные темы: портреты, пейзажи, бытовые и религиозные сцены – отличаются смелостью и разнообразием художественных приемов.

Богатые голландские бюргеры – основные заказчики Рембрандта – не поняли гениального художника. Трагически одиноким, почти нищим умер Рембрандт в 1669 году.

VIII. Summarize the text.

IX. Topics for discussion.

1. Rembrandt's portraits.

2. Rembrandt's biblical paintings.

3. Rembrandt's mythological paintings.

4. Rembrandt as the greatest artist of the world.




accomplish v – завершить

Advent – 1. Рождественский пост; 2. Второе пришествие Христа

against; the deep brown -на фоне темно коричневого alignments; in -построенные в шеренгу allegorical; works-аллегорические произведения allude; to – ссылаться на

Almighty – Всевышний

aloof – далекий

altar – алтарь

altarpiece – алтарный образ

analysis -анализ; of character – анализ образов

angels – ангелы

annunciation A. -Благовещение

anticipate – предвосхищать

antique – античный

antiquity; classical -классическая античность

apostle – апостол

apprentice – подмастерье

apse – апсида; in the – в апсиде

arch – арка

archaic – архаичный

archangel -архангел

architect – архитектор

architecture – архитектура

arrange v – расположить; to frescoes – расположить роспись

arrangement – расположение

art – искусство; applied -прикладное искусство art gallery – картинная галерея

art historians – искусствоведы

artist – художник; graphic ~, black and white -график artistic; tradition -художественная традиция

Arts – изобразительное искусство

assumption; A. – Успение, Вознесение

attention – внимание;

attenuated – бесплотный, невесомый

authentic – подлинный

authenticity – подлинность


bacchanal – вакхический; вакханальный

background – задний план, фон; in the – на заднем плане; against the blue – на голубом фоне; the landscape – пейзажный фон; а object -фоновый предмет; the Caravaggesque = the of nowhere – нейтральный фон; perspective – фоновая перспектива

banquet – пирушка

baptise – крестить

baptism В. – крещение

Baptist -креститель

Baroque – Барокко

barrel vault- цилиндрический свод

barren – бесплодный

bas-relief- барельеф

base n – пьедестал

base v; on – основываться на

basic a; principles of – основные принципы

betray; to the cause – предать дело

Bible – Библия

biblical – библейский

bier – гроб

bishop – епископ

black and white – черно-белый

bless – благословлять

brawl; tavern s-шумные сцены в таверне

breakfast pieces – «завтраки»

brilliance, brilliancy -интенсивность (цвета красок)

brilliant – великолепный

bring (hold) together -объединять

broad; style, technique -свободная манера письма; strokes – свободные мазки

bronze – бронза

brush – кисть; sketchy touches of the эскизные, контурные мазки

brushing – манера

brushstroke – мазок, the s are free and sweeping – мазки свободны и размашисты; broad s – широкие мазки

brushwork – 1. мазки; dashing – стремительные мазки; 2 манера

bulbous – луковичный

bury – погребать

burial – погребение

burlesque – пародия


buttress – контрфорс

Byzantine – Византийский


с. = circa около, приблизительно (о дате)

canvas – холст; on – на холсте

capital – капитель

capture – передать

cardinal – кардинал

caricature (cartoon) -карикатура

cartoon- картон; on – на картоне

carve – ваять, вырезать (из камня, дерева, кости); а statue – изваять статую

carver – резчик

caryatids -кариатиды

cast n – слепок

cast v – 1. ваять из бронзы; 2. бросить

castle – замок

catch v – передать; a likeness – передать сходство

cathedral – собор

ceiling; frescoes (painting) – плафон; потолочная роспись

celebrated – знаменитый; picture – знаменитая картина

ceremonial – парадный; portrait – парадный портрет; gallery – парадная галерея; representation of smb – парадное изображение к. -л.

chamberlain -камерарий

chapel – капелла

character – образ (изображаемое лицо)

characteristically – в основном

chariot – колесница

chisel v – вырезать резцом; ваять из камня, дерева, кости

Christian n -христианин; а – христианский

Christmas -Рождество Христово

circular – круглая (в плане)

citizen-soldiers – стрельцы стрелковой гильдии

cityscape – городской пейзаж

coat – слой; of paint – слой краски; primary -первоначальный слой; final – последний слой

cockleshell n – раковина моллюска

colour n – цвет, краска; glowing – яркие краски; primary – основной цвет; secondary – сложный цвет; a riot of s, a wide scheme (range) – богатство красок; richness of – богатство красок

colour a; sketches on wood – цветные наброски на дереве

column- колонна

commandment – заповедь; the Теп С. – десять заповедей

commission n – заказ; to obtain (get) a – получить заказ; early s – первые заказы

commission v – заказать

commissioner – заказчик

companion; pieces – парные произведения

compare to – сравнить с

composition – композиция; to arrange a – составить композицию

compositional inventiveness – композиционная изобретательность

concave- вогнутый

conceal v – скрывать

concept – замысел

conception- замысел

conductive; to – склонный к

construct v; the landscape in the studio- создавать пейзаж в студии

contemporaries – современники

contrast – контраст; to mute all sharp s – сглаживать все резкие контрасты; s of dark and light – светотень;

contrast v – контрастировать; with, to – контрастировать с

conventional -общепринятый; традиционный; обывательский; people – обыватели

converge – сводить в едино

convert – преобразовываться; into – обращать в

convey- передавать

convincing – убедительный

copy – копии; to make s after Roman sculptures -копировать римские статуи

cove – конха

court-painter – придворный художник

craftsman – ремесленник

Creator – Творец, Создатель

creature- создание

crown n – корона; v -короновать

crucify – распять

crucifix – распятие

crucifixion – распятие на кресте

crystal goblets – хрустальные бокалы

cubic – объемный, трехмерный

current – направление; poetic – романтическое направление

curve v – изгибаться

curving a – изгибающийся

cycle – цикл; а of frescoes – цикл фресок


decoration – роспись

decorative – декоративный

deity – божество

depict v – изображать

depiction v – изображение

derive v – 1. брать; 2. создавать

descend v -спускаться, нисходить

Descent of the Holy Spirit -Сошествие Святого Духа

design n – рисунок, проект

design v – создавать; изображать, нарисовать а halo – изобразить нимб; а tomb – соорудить гробницу; determinant- элемент; major – основной элемент

development; of the Renaissance painting – развитие живописи Возрождения

device – прием; characteristic типичный прием

devise – изобрести, to a pose – изобрести позу

disciple -последователь, ученик

discovery – открытие; to make a – сделать открытие

dispel v – разгонять

disport – развлекаться

diversity of forms (genres) -разнообразие форм (направлений)

divine – божественный

dome – купол

domestic interior – жанровая картина

drapery- драпировка

draughtsman – рисовальщик, мастер рисунка

draw v – рисовать

drawing (design, pattern) -рисунок; to make s – делать рисунки

duke – герцог

dust – прах; to lift from the поднять из праха

dwarf – карлик

dynamo – генератор энергии


earthly – земной; journey – земной путь

easel – мольберт; on the – на мольберте

easel painting – станковая живопись

Easter -Пасха

ecclesiastical – религиозный, духовный

Eden – Рай

elaborate- разработанный в деталях

embody – воплотить

embroidered – вышитый

emerge – появиться; on the international scene – появиться на международной сцене

emphasize; in order to – для того, чтобы подчеркнуть

encompassing dark -окружающая чернота

encounter -наталкиваться

endow – наделять; to the subject with – наделить модель ч-л

energy – энергия; indefatigable – неуемная энергия

engrave v – гравировать

engraving n – гравюра

enigma – загадка

entrance – вход

epitomise- кратко передать содержание; to the theme – кратко изложить сюжет

equilibrium – равновесие

era – эпоха

erect – воздвигать

etch v – гравировать, травить на металле

etcher n – гравер, офортист

etching n – гравюра, офорт; гравировка

Eucharist – евхаристия, святое причастие

everyday scenes – бытовые сценки

excommunicate – отлучить от церкви

execute – выполнять

execution – 1. казнь; 2. выполнение

expulsion n -изгнание

exquisite – изысканная, утонченная

extension – пространство; inward – внутреннее пространство; to introduce light and – ввести свет и пространство

exteriors – экстерьер


facial types – типы лиц;

fashion v – лепить

fateful – роковой; year -судьбоностный год

field – область; in the ofв области

figure – фигура, модель, статуя; arrange the s in a semicircle – расположить фигуры полукругом; to group the s – сгруппировать фигуры; surrounding s -окружающие фигуры; companion – парная статуя;

great founder;~s – великие основатели

Fine Arts – изобразительное искусство

finish n – обработка (поверхности)

flank – фланкировать

flat – плоский; surface – плоская поверхность

float – парить; through the heavens – парить по небесам; above – парить над

flowing – плавный

fluctuate – флюктуировать, колебаться

fluent – плавный

foil for – контрастировать с

follower – последователь; to inspire a host of s-вдохновить сонм последователей

foreground – передний план; in the на переднем плане

foreshortened – укороченный; in perspective -укороченный в перспективе

foretell – предсказать

formidable creation – внушительное произведение

foundation – основание, основа; gilded – позолоченная основа

frame – рама; gilded -позолоченная рама

framed picture – картины в рамах

freedom of the poses -раскованность поз

fresco n – фреска, роспись; in the на фреске; to cover walls with – расписывать стены фресками; on panels -фрески на длинной тонкой доске

fresco v – расписывать фресками; the walls; расписывать стены фресками

full-figure – во весь рост


garden – сад; G. of Eden -райский сад

garments – одежда

Genesis – Книга Бытия

genius – гений

genre – жанр

genre painting – бытовая живопись

genre scenes – жанровая живопись

genre-painter – жанровый художник

gild v – позолотить

gilding – позолота

gilt – позолоченный

glaze n – лазурь; лак; лессировка; v – покрывать лазурью

gleam – сиять

glittering -сияющий

Gospel – Евангелие

Gothic – готический; Late -позднеготический; pointed arches – готические стрельчатые арки;

grandeur – величие; of sculpture – величие скульптуры

graphic – изобразительный

graphic art – графика

graveclothes – саван; to be wrapped in – быть завернутым в саван

grief n -горе; explosion of – взрыв горя

grieve v – скорбеть

grind v – растирать; – the pigments for the paint – растирать краски для картины

ground – грунтовка; red – красная грунтовка

grove – роща; a shadowy – тенистая роща

guild -гильдия; member – член гильдии


hair – волосы; braided – косы; streaming – струящиеся волосы

hallucinatory – иллюзорный

halo – нимб

hand (brush) – рука художника

handle – передавать

handling – трактовка

head – голова; is turned slightly to one side – голова слегка повернута в одну сторону

heaven – небо (Н) – Небеса; to lift to the Н. – возноситься на Небеса; to descend from – спускаться с Небес

heavenly; blue – небесно голубой

helmet – шлем

heritage – наследие

historical painting -историческая живопись

history – история; spiritual of mankind – духовная история человечества

hostile – враждебный

household – 1. семья, домочадцы, bourgeois -буржуазный быт; 2. придворный, дворцовый housekeeping – домашнее хозяйство; гостеприимство

hue – оттенок

hunting scenes – сцены охоты


icon – икона; -painter -иконописец; -painting – иконопись; -panel -иконопись

iconographic scenes -библейские эпизоды

iconostasis – иконостас

illuminated; by a strong light from an undefined source – освещенный ярким светом, исходящим из неизвестного источника

illusionistic – иллюзианистические

imaginary – образное воплощение

imagination – воображение human – человеческое воображение

imbue – пронизывать, пропитывать, насыщать

immediacy -непосредственность

immortal – бессмертный

impact – влияние; make an on – оказать влияние на

impasto – пастозная живопись; наложение красок густым слоем

incorporate – включать (как составную часть)

inevitably – неизбежно

influence – влияние; to fall under the of- попасть под влияние

ink – тушь

inlaid floor -инкрустированный пол

innovations – изобретения

intertwine – переплетаться

inspiration – вдохновение

inspire – вдохновлять

insubstantial – иллюзорный, прозрачный

interior – интерьер; внутренний; to line the расписывать интерьер

interlacing – переплетение

interpretation n – трактовка

interpret v- трактовать; in different ways – трактовать по-разному

interweaving – переплетение; of linear patterns -переплетение линий

introduce v – ввести


judgement – суд; the Last J. – Страшный суд


ladies-in-waiting – фрейлины

landscape – пейзаж; background – пейзажный фон; to derive the from studies -создавать пейзаж на основе набросков; distant глубинный пейзаж

landscape painter – пейзажист

landscape painting -пейзажная живопись

lateral – боковой; scenes -боковые сцены

law-abiding -законопослушный

lay on – накладывать (краски)

layer – слой; ряд; in three s – в три ряда; complex layer of forms – сложный ряд форм

Lent – Великий пост

life-size picture – картина размером в натуральную величину

light – свет; and dark – светотень; without indication of source – свет без указания источника

limited; space – ограниченное пространство

line v = cover v – покрыть (расписать) стены

linear- линейный (имеющий отношение к рисунку)

luminous – прозрачный

lunettes – люнеты


magical – волшебный

manifest – проявить; the Divinity – проявить божественность

Mannerism – Маньеризм

marble – мраморный; step – мраморная ступенька;

marks – маркеры

marmoreal – мраморный; hardness – мраморная тяжеловесность

martyrdom -мученичество

master – великий художник; Renaissance s – великие художники Ренессанса; an obscure local неизвестный местный художник master – мастер; Old Masters – Старые Мастера

masterly а- искусный

masterpiece -шедевр

mastery n – мастерство

mature – зрелый; in the years – в зрелый период; work – зрелая работа

maxim – сентенция, афоризм; a simple – простая сентенция

medieval – средневековый

medium – материал

messiah – мессия; of the art – мессия искусства

middle- середина; in the of-the century – в середине века

middle-aged – средних лет

militia companies – стрелковые гильдии

minority – малолетство

miracle – чудо; the lies in -чудо заключается в том, что; to perform a совершить чудо

model v – 1. ваять из глины, лепить; 2. моделировать; the forms – лепить формы;

model n – 1. модель; 2. натура, натурщик; 3. образец

modelling – лепка, лепная работа

modestly – скромно

moment – момент; – of truth – момент истины

montage – монтаж; photo- – фотомонтаж

monochromatiс а – одноцветный; монохроматический

monochrome n -одноцветный

monumental – монументальный

mortal – смертный

mosaic – мозаика

motive power – движущая сила

mould – лепить

moulding -лепное украшение, лепнина

mourners- плакальщицы; add – дописать плакальщиц

moustache – усы

movement – направление

mural – настенная живопись; painting – фресковая (настенная) живопись

murals, frescoes – настенная живопись


nail – распять, прибить

narrative – сюжетно-тематический

naval battles – морские битвы

New Testament – Новый Завет

niche- ниша

nude – обнаженная; model -обнаженная натура; Figures – обнаженные фигуры

nymph – нимфа


observer – зритель

ochre – охра

oil – масло, масляная краска; in – написанная маслом

Old Testament – Ветхий Завет

omnipotence – всемогущество

onionshaped – луковичный

oratory- часовня

ornament – декоративный

outcast n – изгой; receive an – принять изгоя;

outdoors – на пленэре

outline n – контур; drawing -контурное изображение

over-life statues – статуи выше человеческого роста


pagan- языческий; antiquity – языческая античность; subjects – языческие сюжеты

page – паж

paint n-краска

paint v – писать (красками); (draw) from nature – писать (рисовать) с натуры; freely -легко (свободно) писать; ~

the subject full face – рисовать модель в анфас; to with breadth and ease – писать с широтой и легкостью

paint-box- этюдник

painter – художник; prolific – плодовитый художник; leading – ведущий художник; of battle-scenes (battle-pieces) – баталист

painting – живопись; monumental – монументальная живопись; of battle scenes -батальная живопись; basic principles of the – основные принципы живописи

painting – картина; Western западноевропейская живопись; mature s – зрелые картины

palace – дворец

palette-палитра; гамма красок

palette-knife – мастихин

panel – тонкая доска для живописи, панно; central of a triptych – центральная часть триптиха; on – на доске

Pantheon – Пантеон

parable – притча

paroxysm -приступ; in a of guilt and grief- в приступе вины и горя

Passion – Страсти Господни

pasiel – пастель

patch – пятно

patron saint – святой покровитель

pattern – рисунок; образец

payoff- выплата подати

pearly – перламутровый

peel off- осыпаться

penetrate – пронизывать, пропитывать, насыщать

penitential period – период скорби, траура

Pentecost -пятидесятница

personage – образ (изображаемое лицо)

perspective -перспектива; in в перспективе; linear -линейная перспектива; aerial – воздушная перспектива

pictorial – живописный; message – живописное послание

picture -картина; moralising ~- моралистическая картина; long bas-relief-like вытянутая, напоминающая барельеф картина; in the -на картине; middle period s -произведения зрелого периода

picture v – изображать; corpulent, middle-aged males -изображать полных, средних лет мужчин

pigment – краска, краситель

pilgrim – паломник

pilgrimage -паломничество, путь

plane – плоскость

plaster – штукатурка; on the dry – на сухой штукатурке

plastic – рельефный

plasticity – рельефность

pointed arch – стрельчатая арка

pointillism – пуантилизм

pope – папа (римский)

portico – портик

portrait – портрет; group -групповой портрет; self-portrait – автопортрет; full-length – портрет во весь рост; half-length – поясной портрет; shoulder-length -погрудный портрет; knee-length – портрет три четверти; ceremonial -парадный портрет; equestrian – конный портрет; miniature миниатюрный портрет

portrait painter – портретист

portrait painting -портретная живопись

portraitist – портретист

portraiture- портретная живопись (собственно портреты); individual -портреты отдельных людей

portray – изображать

portrayal- написание портрета; изображение

pose – v позировать; to sitting (standing) позировать сидя (стоя); naked -позировать обнаженным; for a painter – позировать для художника

posen -поза; freedom of s-свобода поз; recumbent – в раскинувшейся позе

position – поза

posture n – поза

prank - шутка

preaching n – проповедь

predecessors -предшественники;- of the painter – предшественники художника

present – изобразить

presentation – изображение

preside v-председательствовать

proclivity – склонность

procurator – прокуратор

produce -изобразить, сделать, создать; for the first time – создать впервые

profane ?????????? – земной, мирской; feasts – мирские празднества

prophecy -пророчество;- of the Baptism of Christ -пророчество крещения Христа

prophet – пророк; grieving скорбящий пророк

prospect – вид, панорама, перспектива

prostrate – распростертый; плоский

protagonist – главный герой

protection – покровительство; to take smb under one's- – взять кого-либо под свое покровительство

pursue [p??????v -преследовать

put to test – подвергнуть испытанию

put together – объединять

pyramid- пирамида

pyramidal – пирамидальный; composition -пирамидальная композиция


Quattrocento – кватроченто, XV век

Queen of Heaven – Царица Небесная


radiant – лучистый

radiate – сиять

raise – поднять; smth to a level of drama – поднять на уровень драмы

raising – 1. воскрешение; 2. воздвижение, of the cross -воздвижение креста

reach; its supreme embodiment in – достичь наивысшего воплощения в

realism -реализм

realistic – реалистический

recall – напоминать

receive – принять

recline v – сидеть откинувшись

recognize v -признавать

reconcile v -примирить

recount – рассказывать

recumbent – откинувшаяся (на кушетке)

redeeming power – искупляющая сила

redemption R. – Искупление Грехов

refectory -трапезная

regent ?] – регентша

regentess – обитательница

relief a – рельефный

relief- барельеф; bronze s – бронзовые барельефы

religious paintings – картины на религиозные темы

reminiscences – цитаты

Renaissance- Возрождение, Ренессанс; High – Высокое Возрождение; short-lived High – недолгий период Высокого Ренессанса

render – передавать; to the event – передать событие

represent – изображать; the sky – изображать небо

representation – изображение; traditional – традиционное изображение

representational art -предметное искусство

reputation – репутация; rests on репутация основывается на

request – просьба; at the -по просьбе

resemble- напоминать

resolve; all conflicts -разрешать все проблемы

resurrection R. -воскрешение; at Easter -воскрешение на Пасху

revival – возрождение; of Classical antiquity -возрождение классической античности; Gothic возрождение готики

revive – возродить; the art of painting – возродить живопись

revolutionary – новаторский; realism – новаторский реализм

revolutionise – внести коренные изменения

rich – сочный

richness – сочность

rigid – строгий, суровый

rigidity – строгость, суровосгь

robust; mountaineer -крепкий горец

rough – рельефный

ruff- круглый плоеный жесткий воротник

ruffle – кружевной гофрированный воротник

ruins – развалины

rural landscape – деревенский пейзаж

rustic scenes – деревенские сценки


sacred – священный; figures – священные образы

sacrifice – жертвоприношение; to make а -совершать жертвоприношение

sacrificial – жертвенный; death – жертвенная смерть

saint – святой

sanctuary – алтарная часть церкви

sanguine – сангвина

sarcophagus саркофаг

scale – размер, масштаб, соотношение

scene – сцена; realistic – реалистическая сцена; s from smb's life – сцены из жизни; religious s – религиозные сцены; in the principle в главной сцене

sculptor – скульптор, ваятель

sculpture – скульптура, ваяние; in the round – круглая скульптура

sculpturesque – рельефный

scurto – скурто; in (foreshortening) – укороченно

seascape – морской пейзаж

seascape painter – маринист

seascape painting – марина, маринистическая живопись

secular – светский, гражданский

set down – запечатлеть

set in action – привести в действие(в движение)

stone tablets – скрижали

shade – оттенок, нюанс

shadow and light – светотень

sheepfold – овчарня

shepherd – пастух

shield – щит

shimmering – мерцающий

show – изображать

simulated – нарисованная (ложная); marble architecture – нарисованная мраморная архитектура

sin – грех, позор; the taint of the Original S. – позор Первородного Греха

sinner- грешник

sit v (for)- позировать

sitter – натурщик

sketch – эскиз, набросок; colour s on wood – цветные наброски на дереве; oil -набросок маслом; pencil -карандашный набросок; preliminary – предварительный набросок

sketched in – схематичный

sketchy technique – техника наброска

skill – мастерство

solid – объемный

sombre – мрачный

source n – источник

space n – пространство; distant – глубинное пространство; to rule out исключать пространство; to form a definite stage in – образовать определенную ступень в пространстве; limited – ограниченное пространство

spacious – просторный

spandrel – пазуха свода

sparkle – точки, искры

spatial – пространственный

spectator – зритель

spire – шпиль

spirituality – одухотворенность

splash- пятно


spot- пятно

spot technique – пуантилизм

spread – распространяться

stained-glass window – витраж

stamp – печать, след; to put a personal on – оставить личный след на

statuary – скульптура

statue-like figures – похожие на скульптуры статуи

statues in marble – мраморные статуи

still life – натюрморт; painting – натюрморт

streak – полоса, полоска

strokes – мазки; unerring -точные, безошибочные мазки

strokes – мазки; broad -широкие мазки

studio – студия; painter's -студия художника

study – этюд

style – стиль; sculptural -скульптурный стиль; pictorial изобразительный стиль; integrity of the целостность стиля

stylised – стилизованный

subject – сюжет, тема; favourite – излюбленный сюжет; religious религиозный сюжет, mythological мифологический сюжет, historical исторический сюжет subject n – модель; образ (изображаемое лицо)

subject matter – сюжет, тема substance; and the drive -материя и энергия

successive – последующие

surface n – поверхность; поверхность картины; rough – неровная поверхность; on a flat – на плоской поверхности

surpass – превзойти

survive to – дожить до

sweeping line – размашистая линия

sword – меч

symbol – символ; of fidelity -символ верности

symmetry – симметрия; to break up the – нарушить симметрию


take on colour (form) – принимать цвет, форму

tan – рыжевато-коричневый, желтовато-коричневый

taunting smile – насмешливая улыбка

tax-gatherer – мытарь

technique of painting – техника письма (живописи)

temple – храм

terraced – ступенчатый

test – испытание; put to -подвергать испытанию

texture n – 1. передача поверхности предметов в произведениях искусства; 2. поверхность картины; 3. фактура; pictorial – фактура письма

theme – тема; biblical -библейская тема; ordinary -традиционная тема

thin layer – тонкий слой

three-dimensional -трехмерный, объемный; to project three-dimensional forms – изобразить объемные формы; space – трехмерное пространство

three-dimensionality -трехмерность, объемность

tie – соединять

tinge – оттенок

tomb – надгробие, могила; tombstone – надгробие

top – верх; at the – наверху

torches – факелы

tormentors – палачи

touch – мазок

town(city) landscape городской пейзаж

traditional – традиционное; rendering of the subject -традиционное изображение темы

transfiguration Т. – преображение

translucent -просвечивающий, полупрозрачный; garments – прозрачные одежды

travelscape – дорожный пейзаж

treat a subject – обращаться к чему-либо

trend – направление

triangular; principle -принцип треугольника; to apply the compositional principle to – использовать принцип композиции треугольника в

tribute – дань; collect взимать дань

tribute money – подать

trunk – ствол


underpaint – набросок; monochrome одноцветный набросок

underpainting – подмалевка

undertaking – произведение; major – основное произведение

unframed pictures – картины без рам

unlike -в отличие от


vantage point – место, дающее хороший обзор

variety of styles -разнообразие стилей

varnish – лак, фиксаж

vault – свод

vault compartments above the windows – арки над окнами

vaulted сводчатый

vaulting – сводчатое покрытие

Venetian colourism – венецианский колоризм

versatile – разносторонний

vestments – одежда, одеяние;

vision – 1. картина; monochromatic -монохроматическая картина; religious -религиозная картина; 2. видение (индивидуальное восприятие)

visual art – изобразительное искусство

volume – объем


wall – стена; on the opposit – на противоположной стене; against the – на фоне стены

wall hangings – шпалеры

wash – слой

water-colour – акварель

wilderness -пустошь

windmill – ветряная мельница

withdrawal n – отход

withered tree – засохшее дерево

wood; on – на дереве

works – произведения; of art – произведения искусства; early – произведение раннего периода; mature -зрелые произведения

workshop – мастерская

world-famous – всемирно-известный


Bazin, Germain, The Baroque, New York, Graphic Society, Greenwich, Conn. 1968

Bertini, Luciano, Masaccio, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, 1967

Clark, Kenneth, M. Leonardo da Vinci, 2d ed., Baltimore, 1967

De Tolnay, Charlie, Michelangelo, 2d ed., 5 vols. Princeton University press, 1969-71

Fisher, Oscar, Raphael, Spring Books, London, 1964

Fromentin, Eugene, The Old Masters of Belgium and Holland, Schocken, New York, 1963

Hartt F. BotticellI. New York, 1952

Hartt F. History of Italian Renaissance Art. New York, 1969

Klein, Robert, and Zoner, H. Italian Art 1500-1600: Sources and Documents in the History of Art, Prince-Hall, Eglewood, Cliffs, New York, 1966

Lamer, John, Culture and Society in Italy, 1290 -1420, Scribner. New York, 1971

Lopez-Rey, Joze, Velazquez: A Catalogue Raisonne of his Oeuvre, Faber and Faber, London 1960

Martindale, Andrew, ed. The Complete Painting of Mantegna, Abrams, New York, 1967

Posner, Donald, Annibale Carracci, 2 vols., London 1971

Spear, Richard, Caravaggio and His Followers, Cleveland Museum of Art, 1969

Stechow, Wolegans, Rubens and the Classical Tradition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1968

Stubblebine, James H., ed. Giotto: The Arena Chapel Frescoes, Norton, New York, 1969

Wilde, Johannes, Venetian Art from Bellini to Titian, Oxford University Press, New York, 1971

Детская энциклопедия. Изд., 2, т. 12. M., 1968

Энциклопедический словарь, Брокгауз-Эфрон. M., 1991


  • Западноевропейское искусство от Джотто до Рембрандта
  • Введение
  • Unit I Giotto (c.1267-1337)
  • Unit II Masaccio (1401-1427/29)
  • Unit III Mantegna (1431-1506)
  • Unit IV Botticelli (1445-1510)
  • Unit V Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519)
  • Unit VI Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564)
  • Unit VII Raphael (1483-1520)
  • Unit VIII Titian (1490-1576)
  • Unit IX The Carracci
  • Unit X Caravaggio (1573-1610)
  • Unit XI Poussin (1593/94-1665)
  • Unit XII Rubens (1577-1640)
  • Unit XIII Velazquez (1599-1660)
  • Unit XIV The 'Little Masters'
  • Unit XV Hals (1581/85-1666)
  • Unit XVI Rembrandt (1608-1669)
  • Vocabulary
  • Literature
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