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Chapter 1

Unit 1

Metal-Making And Civilization

Text 1

Metals in Perspective

Modern civilization is based on metals and millions of tons are extracted from the surface of the Earth every year. The place of metals in the modern world is surpreme in importance. About three-quarters of all known chemical elements are metals.

Since the Stone Age, man has found many materials he could work with. However, the materials that helped him most to develop were the metals. In many regions of the Ancient World man used lumps of native metals he could pick from the surface of the ground: gold nuggets, lumps of native copper and silver.

Archaeologists have found evidence of early metal-work dating as far back as 10,000 BC. Such finds were made in the Middle East, where deposits of copper were most plentiful. This does not mean that this metal was easy to find, but that there were more deposits in the Middle East than other parts of the world.

Copper seems to be the first metal which began to oust stone. The need for copper was great indeed. The advantages that copper had over stone as a material for weapons, tools, were obvious. The metal occured naturally in the pure (free) state and had many good things about it: it could readily be worked to any shape, flattened, pointed and holed. At first, man made it into small things such as arrowheads. Before long, however, man noticed that when hammered copper becomes harder and stronger, but if it is held over a fire - soft, malleable, easy to work.

Gold is the most malleable of all the metals. It is much softer than copper and not very strong. But gold has been valued for thousands of years for its beautiful luster and scarcity.

In about 4300 BC in the region of the Caspian Sea man discovered the process of smelting - how to extract the metals from their ores.

Two new metals came into use at this time - about 4,000 BC. The first was silver, prized in those days as it is today, for its beauty, and used for ornaments. It was sometimes found `free', lying around, as was gold, but was mostly smelted from ores. The second metal was lead, a dull heavy metal, soft and easily shaped into cups and beakers. Lead is never found `free'; it has always been smelted from ore.

During the next 1,000 years the knowledge of the four metals far known - gold, copper, silver and lead - spread to other lands. Troy (home of Helen), near the Dardanelles, was the chief centre of trade and from there goods were carried by boat into Europe. The River Danube provided a highway deep into the continent, and the traders' boats also took metal goods to all countries around the Mediterranean. Eventually they reached Britain, and the art of smelting and metal working became known in this country. Quite early in the history of metal the process of casting was used to shape metal.

So, during the many centuries of his history man has learnt how to mine, smelt and work many metals. But iron - the chief metal of present times - has given the name of Iron Age to the most significant and productive period in the development of human society.

Task 1

Phonetic Exercise

Practise after the speaker and learn to pronounce the words given below:

surface /'s?:fis/; surpreme /s? `pri:m/; nugget /'n/\git/; malleable /'m li? bl/; scarcity /'sk??siti/; ornament /'o:n?m?nt/; ore /o:/; require /ri'kwai?/; deposit /di'pozit/; obvious /'obvi?s/; chemical /'kemik?l/; oust /aust/; surroundings /s?`raundinz/; monetary /'m/\ nit?ri/; available /?`veil?bl/; treatment /'tri:tment/; lead /led/.

Task 2

Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the words and word- combinations

given below. Use them in the sentences of your own.

()

Exercise 2. Match the English words and word-combinations given

below with their Russian equivalents.

1. the place of metals in the modern

1. world

2. to pick from the surface of the ground

2.

3. deposits of copper

3.

4. the need for iron

4.

5. to work to any shape

5.

6. alongside with silver

6.

7. a hard material

7.

8. basic metallurgical arts

8.

9. the most widely used metal

9.

10. to work metals

10.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions.

  1. What is modern civilization based on?

  2. What were the materials that helped man most to develop? Why?

  3. Was iron the first metal to oust stone?

  4. When did man start using metals?

  5. Where was evidence of early metal-work found?

  6. Why is gold widely used for ornaments?

  7. What was the 4th metal discovered and what are its properties?

Exercise 4. Complete the following statements by choosing the answer which

you think fits best. Are the other answers unsuitable? Why?

1. Modern civilization is based on metals because:

a) three quarters of all known chemical elements are metals.

b) they can be used to produce a wide variety of things.

c) they are very cheap.

2. Gold has been used for ornaments for thousands of years because:

a) it has beautiful luster.

b) it is not very strong.

c) it is scarce.

3. Heat treatment is used because:

a) it makes iron harder.

b) it protects iron against corrosion.

c) it improves the properties of iron.

4. Copper began to oust stone because:

a) it could be readily worked to any shape.

b) there was more copper than stone on the surface of the Earth.

c) it had a beautiful luster.

Exercise 5. Give a written Russian translation of the following definitions.

Copper - a ductile, malleable, reddish-brown metallic element that is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. It is widely used either pure or in alloys such as brass or bronze.

Gold - a soft yellow, corrosion-resistant element, the most malleable ductile metal, occuring in veins and alluvial deposits and recovered by mining, or by panning sluicing. It is a good thermal and electrical conductor, generally alloyed to increase its strength, and used as an international monetary standard, in jewelry, for decoration and as a plated coating on a wide variety of electrical and mechanical components.

Silver - a lustrous white, ductile malleable metallic element, occuring both uncombined and in ores such as argentite, having the lightest thermal and electrical conductivity of the metals. It is highly valued for jewelry, tableware and other ornamental use, and is widely used in coinage, photography, dental and soldering alloys, electrical contacts and printed circuits.

Lead - soft, malleable, ductile, bluish-white, dense metallic element, extracted chiefly from galena.

Task 3

Focus on Grammar

Articles

The indefinite articles (a, an) are used with countable nouns when they are singular (a metal, an element).

The definite article (the) may be used with plural nouns and with either countable or uncountable single nouns:

  • to specify something that has been already mentioned:

The elements, I have mentioned, are very active.

  • To refer to something that is unique:

a planet - the earth

  • To express superlatives:

the heaviest element

  • With ordinal numbers:

the twenty-first century; the last paper

  • With a noun that is followed by an of phrase:

the atomic number of oxygen

article is not used

only `the' is used

1) before abstract nouns: Life is wonderful!

1) before proper names of groups of islands, chains of mountains, plural names of deserts, coutries: the Alps; the Atlantic, the Thames the USA. the Netherlands.

2) before names of people and

places (except those in the right

column). But the Smiths

(= the Smith family).

2) with certain other names: the Sudan, the Yemen, the Hague

3) after a noun in the possessive

case, or a possessive pronoun:

this is my book

3) before names consisting of adjective+noun: the Gold Coast, the High Street

4) before `home'

4) before names consisting of noun+of+noun

the Cape of Good Hope, the Union of South Africa

Exercise 1. Explain the use of the articles or their absence.

  1. Gold is a rather rare element. 2. Sheila is a student. Her subject is mathematics. 3. The Hymalayas form a wall along the north of India. 4.They decided to have dinner with the Browns. 5. In fact Russian managers enjoy more freedom to make decisions. 6. Professor Rogers is a physisist. His special field is classical physics. 7. Every fifteen years Mars comes within about 56 million kilometres of Earth (the next approach will occur in the summer of 2003). 8. Physical metallurgy deals with the nature, structure and physical properties of metals and alloys. 9. The chemical elements are devided into metals and non-metals. 10. Man knows how to mine, smelt and work metals. 11. The Mediterranian was one of the main sea-routs to transport metals in ancient times. 12. Very little hydrogen is found free in nature.

Exercise 2. Fill in the spaces with articles whenever necessary.

1. ... iron occurs only sparingly in ... free state. 2. In ... distant times ... Caucasus was probably connected with ... Balcans. 3. ... United States of America is located on ... American continent. 4. ... Manhattan lies at .... mouth of ... Hudson River. 5. They went to ... Swiss Alps for ... Christmas holidays. 6. I like ... tea, but she prefers ... mineral water. 7. ... ancient Greece and Rome were known for their excellent metal workers. 8. She has just returned from ... Hague. 9. I don't know where ... Cape of ... Good Hope is. ... Geography is not my best subject. 10. ... Doctor Albert Arnott, who is a nuclear physicist, does not have much administrative work to do though he is ... Head of Department of ... Atomic Physics at Cambridge. He has ... very good assistant. 11. When I was in ... London I liked to walk in ... Trafalgar Square. 12. ... body at ... rest tends to remain at ... reat, and ... body in ... motion tends to remain in ... motion. 13. ... Browns are my neighbours. 14. ... Guardian is among ... most popular British newspapers. 15. He stood by ... window of ... sitting-room which overlooked ... Hyde Park. 16. ... capital of ... United States, Washington, D.C., is not located in any state, but lies between ... states of Maryland and ... Virginia. 17. ... future of ... British education depends on ... success of ... radical reforms of ... present Government. 18. ... Britain was ... rural country until ... end of ... 18th century. 19. … effect of radiation on … living things depends on … amount of radiation absorbed and … rate of absorption.

Text 2

Pre - reading tasks.

1. Find the answers to the following questions:

  1. What was Hephaestus?

  2. Was he a lovely, healthy child?

  3. Why was he returned to Olympus?

  4. Did he help much to the gods of Olympus?

  5. Did his children resemble him?

2. Give the titles to the paragraphs of the text.

3. What other Greek or Roman gods do you know? What did they patronize?

Pronouncing Dictionary

Hephaestus /hi'fi:st?s/ Zeus /zju:s/ Hera /'hiar / Thetis /'?etis/ Eurinome /ju?`rain?m/ Artemis /'a:timis/ Apollo /`polou/

Palaemon /'pl?m?n/ Ardalus /'a:d?l?s/

Hephaestus

Hephaestus was born into the family of Zeus and Hera, the supreme rulers of the Greek gods, who lived on Olympus. When Hera saw her ugly deformed child (he was lame), she threw him out. The infant fell into the ocean, where Thetis and Eurinome, the Oceanid found him and brought him up for nine years in their cave, unknown to the gods or Hera. It was here that he learnt his arts of a metalworker. He made a golden throne for his mother and sent it to her. There was a trap in the throne, and when Hera sat on it, she could not leave it, and none of the gods was able to help her. It was his revenge. So the gods sent for Hephaestus. They invited him to come to Olympus.

On Olympus he became a master craftsman, the smith and metal-founder for the gods. Hephaestus was very useful to the Olympians. He built splendid halls and palaces and enabled the gods to live in great luxury. He even made armour for mortal men when a goddess asked him about it.

Hephaestus had a workshop on Olympus where, in the great battle of the gods and giants, he used molten iron to quell the giant Mimas. Hephaestus also forged the chain that bound Prometheus to the top of Mount Caucasus; and he made Zeus' thunderbolts and the arrows of Artemis and Apollo.

His children (mostly lame like himself) included the Argonaut Palaemon and Ardalus, inventor of the flute.

Task 2

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1. Here are the answers to some questions about the text.

Work out the questions.

1) Zeus and Hera were the supreme rulers of the Greek Gods. 2) Hera threw Hephaestus out because he was an ugly deformed child. 3) Hephaestus was returned to Olympus to free his mother Hera. 4) On Olympus he became a master craftsman. 5) Yes, he also became the smith and metal founder for the gods. 6) His son Ardalus was inventor of the flute. 7) No, Hephaestus didn't use boiled water, he used molten iron to quell the giant Mimas.

Exercise 2. Read the text carefully and agree or disagree with the

statements given below.

1. Hephaestus was born by Athena. 2. Hephaestus was a charming, healthy child, and his mother loved him very much. 3. Hephaestus' revenge was very crafty. 4. He made armour both for gods and for mortal men. 5. Hephaestus didn't work on Olympus, he preferred working among mortal people. 6. He was the chief god of commerce. 7. He was very skilled and enabled gods to live in luxury.

Exercise 3. Look at the text and find words or phrases which mean the same as:

chief, main

newborn child

Produce

be able

Wonderful

Fight

avenge

give a possibility

Exercise 4. Put the jumbled sentences in the right order to get

an organized text.

1. William Shakespear, the greatest and most famous of English writers, was born in 1564.

2. There is a story that Shakespeare's first job was to hold rich men's horses at the theatre door.

3. The last half of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th centuries are known as the golden age of English literature.

4. His father, John Shakespeare, was a merchant and he had several houses in Stratford.

5. Later Shakespeare became an actor.

6. His mother, Mary Arden, was a farmer's daughter.

7. Shakespeare wrote 37 plays and 154 sonnets.

8. He was a great humanist and believed in the high and noble features of man's mind.

Oral Practice

Meeting people. Family. Occupation. Hobbies.

Patterns

Questions

Replies

1. What is your name?

1. My name is ...

2. Where are you from?

2. I am from Russia.

3. Are you married? No, I'm single/divorced

3. Yes, I am.

4. Have you got any children?

4. Yes, I've got a boy who is nine years old and an eighteen-year old girl.

5. What do you do?

5. I'm an engineer.

6. Where do you work?

6. I work in an office.

7. What are you interested in?

7. I'm interested in music/sports/dancing

8. What do you like?

8. I like skating/playing football/reading books.

9. What is you hobby?

9. I like collecting stamps.

10. Do you like going to disco

clubs at your leisure?

10. Not much.

Family: grandmother, grandfather, grandparents, mother, father, parents, son, daughter, children, brother, sister, cousin, uncle, aunt, husband, wife, father-in-law, mother-in-law, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, in-laws.

Occupations: student, engineer, teacher, secretary, doctor, car mechanic, plumber, carpenter, photographer, librarian, laboratory assistant, hairdresser, nurse, bank clerk.

Exercise 1. Fill in the questioneer.

Personal details

Surname . . . . . . First name . . . . .

Nationality . . . . Date of birth . . .

Occupation . . . . Place of birth . . .

Date of arrival in Britain . . . . .

Length of stay . . . . . .

Exercise 2. Try to quess the job by asking questions like these:

Do you . . . wear a uniform / a suit/ overalls

work inside/outside/ in an office/ in a bank/at a clinic

make things

draw schemes

attend the lectures

repair cars

give lectures

look after patients

count the money

Are you a . . .?

Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences.

1. My mother's sister is my . . . 2. My father's brother is my . . .

3.My wife's father is my . . . 4. My husband's mother is my . . .

5. My uncle's daughter is my . . . 6. My wife's brother is my . . .

7. My father's mother is my . . . 8. My husband's relatives are my . . .

Exercise 4. Learn the dialogue by heart and make a dialogue of your own,

using the patterns.

Ben: Hello! My name is Ben. What is your name?

Susan: My name is Susan.

Ben: Nice to meet you, Susan. Where are you from?

Susan: I am from York. And where are you from?

Ben: I'm from Melburn. I'm Australian.

Susan: Glad to meet you. What do you do?

Ben: I'm an engineer. And what are you?

Susan: I'm a teacher. Have you got a family?

Ben: Yes, I'm married, with two children.

Exercise 5. What questions would you ask if the replies are:

1. I'm from France.

2. She is a student.

3. He drives lorries.

4. Hans is from Germany.

5. I'm Swedish.

6. She is an assistant in a shop.

7. He's a teacher.

8. They are from Russia.

Exercise 6. Pretend, you've been in England for three days, but you haven't made any friends yet. Then, one morning, you are having coffee during the morning break and a student comes and sits next to you…. Think of some questions the student might ask.How would you reply? What questions could you ask?

Unit 2

Text 1

The Importance of Iron and Advent of Steel

Life seems impossible now without iron, the cheapest and most important metal we use. Iron is extracted from a rocky material called iron ore. Like many elements, iron is too reactive to exist on its own in the ground. Instead, it combines with other elements, especially oxygen, in ores. The chemical process for extracting a metal from its ore is called smelting.

The first people who discovered how to extract iron from iron ore were the Hittites, a powerful group of people living in Asia Minor and Syria - south of the Black Sea. They kept the process a closely guarded secret. The Egyptians, for example, had to pay the Hittites in gold four times the weight of iron and once deceived them with lumps of bronze covered with a thin layer of gold.

The smelting of iron was the most important metallurgical development. Iron-ore is plentiful all over the world, therefore it may seem surprising that such a long time elapsed before iron was produced. The reason was that the furnaces used to smelt copper were not hot

Sometimes the early iron-workers, or smiths, accidentally produced a steel article instead of an iron one. Steel is iron with a small percentage of carbon in it. The carbon came from the fuel in the furnace in which the iron was heated. The smiths later learned from experience how to introduce this carbon when they wanted to produce steel.

Steel is stronger than iron, and can be made stronger still by quenching, which is the sudden cooling, in water or other fluids, from red-heat. However, steel becomes very brittle when made extremely hard, and as each smith used his own method the quality of the steel varied a great deal. Often a sword made by a poor smith snapped just when it was most needed.

In those days furnaces were not hot enough to melt iron completely. To extract the iron from the iron-ore, the ore was heated as much as possible (reducing the iron to a `spongy' consistency) and then hammered. This forced the bits of rock and other impurities out, leaving the iron behind. Great skill and dexterity were required, especially as tongs had not been invented and the hot metal was handled with green sticks.

Task 1

Phonetic Exercise

Practise after the speaker and learn to pronounce the words given below.

civilization /sivilai'zei? n/; iron /'ai?n/; especially /is'pe ?i?li/; oxygen /'oksij?n/; Hittites /'hitaits/; guarded /'ga:did/; furnace /'f ?:nis/; eventually /i'vent? u?li/; toughness /t/\ fnis/; superior /sju:'pi?ri?/; Celtic /'seltik/; percentage /p?`sentij/; quenching /'kwent? i? /; impurity / im'pju?riti/.

Task 2

Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the words and word - combinations

given below. Use them in the sentences of your own.

; ; ; ; / ; , ; ; ; ; ; ; ; /; ; ; ; ; ; .

Exercise 2. Match the English words and word-combinations given below

with their Russian equivalents.

1. to extract iron 1.

2. chemical process 2.

3. a steel article 3.

4. the fuel in the furnace 4.

5. to learn from experience 5.

6. the quality of the steel 6.

7. to melt iron completely 7.

8. to vary a great deal 8.

9. to require great skill 9.

10. steel becomes very brittle 10.

11. red-heat 11.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions

1. Why is life impossible without iron? 2. Who first discovered how to extract iron from iron ore? 3. Why did they keep this process as a closely guarded secret? 4. How did the discovery of iron spread both east and west? 5. What is smelting? 6. What did the smiths do? 7. How did they get steel? 8. What process is called quenching? 9. Were the early smiths able to melt iron completely?

Exercise 4. Complete the following statements by choosing the answer which

you think fits best. Are the other answers unsuitable? Why?

1. Man cannot live without iron because:

a) it is easy to mine it. b) it is very cheap.

c) he uses it in his everyday life.

2. The Hittite kept the process of smelting a top-secret because:

a) they wanted to use iron only for themselves.

b) it helped them to sell iron at high price.

c) they were very ptimitive people.

3. Early smiths could not produce proper steel because:

a) they did not know the right percentage of carbon.

b) the furnaces were not hot enough. c) they tried to introduce oxygen.

4. Great skill and dexterity were required to extract iron from ore because:

a) iron was heated very quickly.

b) the furnaces were not hot enough and tongs hadn't been invented.

c) the hammer was too heavy.

Exercise 5. Give a written Russian translation of the following sentences.

Iron is the commonest of all metallic elements (symbol Fe), used in various forms. Practically all of the iron is extracted from its chemical compounds in the blast furnace. A certain amount of harmful impurities is always present in iron ore. Ferrous metals are used in industry in two general forms: cast iron and steel.

Steel is iron containing to 1.7 per cent carbon content. Pure iron is not used in industry because it is too soft.

Cast iron is a hard, brittle , non-malleable iron-carbon alloy containing 2.0 to 4.5 % carbon, 0.5 to 3% silicon and lesser amounts of sulphur, manganese and phosphorus.

Task 3.

Focus on Grammar

Exercise 1. Explain the use (or absence) of the definite article in the cases

given below.

1. Life seems impossible without iron. 2. It is the cheapest metal. 3. Asia Minor. 4. The Black Sea. 5. The most important process. 6. Iron is the sixth metal discovered by man. 7. Iron appeared in Britain in the Bronze Age. 8. The first traces of iron. 9. A small percentage of carbon. 10. The carbon comes from the fuel in the furnace in which the iron was heated. 11. Great skill and dexterity were required.

Degrees of Comparison

long - longer - the longest

important - more important - the most important

Special cases: good - better - the best

bad - worse - the worst

little - less - the least

many/much - more - the most

far - farther - the farthest

further - the furthest

With the help of the degrees of comparison we can contrast differences.

For example: Mercury has the lowest melting point.

The melting point of copper is slightly higher than gold

and lower than platinum.

We can contrast differences also with the help of the following patterns.

is unlike

Iron is different from alunimiun

differs from

Unlike iron

In contrast to iron aluminium is light

Compared to iron

In comparison to iron

Note: The structure “the”+Comparative+”the better”

The sooner you finish this work, the better it will be for you.

, .

We say: Can you come as soon as possible?

?

This book is not as interesting as the one I gave you yesterday.

, , .

This dress is twice (three times) as expensive than my new suit.

() .

Silver is less malleable than gold.

, .

After superlatives we use preposition “in” with places.

For example: She is one of the nicest girls in the class.

- .

If “most” is used in the meaning of “very” the definite article is not used before this superlative.

The party you gave last night was most interesting.

.

Other words that are used to show contrast are: although, but, however, in contrast, on the other hand, even though, nevertheless, on the contrary, yet, in spite of, despite.

Such words as similarly, likewise, in the same way, moreover, also, furthermore, besides are used for the comparison of similar items.

Exercise 2. In the text find the cases of comparing (or contrasting).

Explain the formation of the degrees of comparison.

Exercise 3. Using the table given below circle the answer that best

completes the statement.

Metal Melting Point Boiling Point

Copper 1083 2595

Silver 960 2212

Gold 1063 2966

1. Compared to the other metals on the table copper has . . . melting

point. a) the highest b) equal

2. . . . copper the melting point of silver is not very high.

a) unlike b) similar to

3. The boiling point of silver is . . . one.

a) identical b) the lowest

4. . . . to its melting point, the boiling point of gold is much higher.

a) compared to b) comparable

Exercise 4. Make up sentences of your own using the following phrases:

a meter longer; two times larger; twice bigger; compared to . . . it is much heavier; in contrast to . . . it is more interesting.

Exercise 5. Use the right degrees of comparison. Insert definite articles wherenever necessary.

  1. Perhaps … life existed on … (warm, wet) Mars billions of years ago. 2. Can you do it as … (soon) as possible? 3. … Petrol is twice as … (expensive) as it was a year ago. 4. … lectures of this professor are … (interesting). 5. … test was … (easy) than we expected. 6. … Severn is … (long) river in England. 7. I know … (much) about … chemistry than you do. 8. … weather is getting … (bad and bad), I am afraid. 9. … (early) we leave, … (soon) we come back. 10. … problem is not so difficult, it is … (simple) than I expected. 11. … iron is … (cheap) metal we use. 12. …steel is … (strong) than iron. 13. … (high) the purity of titanium, … (low) is its strength. 14. A new study shows that students give … (high) evaluation to … (enthusiastic) and not necessarily …(good) teachers. … (big) difference between …two specimens was in their microstructures. 15. This is … (simple) form of plastic deformation.

Exercise 6. Here are some idioms of comparison. Translate them into Russian and use in the sentences of your own.

  1. as true as steel - loyal, reliable

  2. as tough as nails - strong-willed

  3. as heavy as lead - very heavy

  4. to sleep like a dog - to sleep very deeply

  5. to be like a dog with two tails - to be very happy and proud about smth

  6. to have a memory like a sieve - to have a very bad memory

Text 2

Pre - reading task.

What great names in the history of metallurgy do you know?

Some of the Great Names in the History of Metallurgy

Anosov, Pavel Petrovich (1799 - 1851), a Russian metallurgist. Entered the St.Petersburg Mining Corps of Cadets at the age of 11. Graduated with honours in 1817 and was appointed to a minor post at the Zlatoust Crown Works. Promoted to Supervisor of the Zlatoust Arms Factory in 1819, to its Superintendent in 1824, and its Manager in 1829. From 1831 on, Mining Chief of the Zlatoust Works. From 1847 until his death, Chief of the Altai Works.

Anosov won world renown for his writings on the manufacture of iron and his re-discovery of the secret of damaskene lost in the Middle Ages. He explained the effect of the chemical composition, structure and treatment of steel on its properties. His findings formed the basis for the science of quality steels. Anosov summed up his studies in his now classical treatise, `On Damaskene' (1841), immediately translated into German and French.

Anosov was the first to use the microscope in studies into the structure of steel (1831), thus laying the foundation for the microscopic analysis of metals.

Anosov was elected a corresponding member of the Kazan University (1844) and an honorary member of the Kharkov University (1846).

Bessemer, Sir Henry (1813 - 1898), a British civil engineer and inventor, elected to the London Royal Society in 1879. Patented over a hundred inventions in various fields of technology. Those most important were the needle die for postal stamps and the word-casting machine in 1838, the sugar cane press in 1849, and the centrifugal pump in 1850. While working on ways and means of improving the quality of a heavy artillery shell in 1854, he felt the need for a better steel-making process. In 1856 he patented a vessel for converting molten pig iron into steel. The process which took place in a vessel was named after him and revolutionized the iron and steel industry. In 1860, he patented a converter in which air is blown through the bottom and trunnions. He also advanced the idea of rolling steel without having to cast it into ingots.

Huntsman, Benjamin (1704 - 1776), a British metallurgist. Rediscovered around 1740 the crucible process of steel-making known to the ancients in India, Persia, Syria, and elsewhere but later lost to civilization. The crucible process produced strong steel.

Task 2

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1. Here are some answers to some questions about the text.

Work out the questions.

1. Pavel Anosov was 18 when he graduated from the Mining Corps of Cadets. 2. For a long time he was Mining Chief of the Zlatoust Works. 3. In his works he explained the effect of chemical composition of steel on its properties. 4. Bessemer patented over a hundred inventions in various fields of technology. 5. It was Bessemer who advanced the idea of rolling steel without casting it into ingots.

Exercise 2. Read the text carefully and agree or disagree with the

statements given below.

1. Anosov was a famous Russian painter. 2. Pavel Anosov re-discovered the secret of damaskene. 3. The secret of damaskene was lost in ancient time. 4. Henry Bessemer was an eletrician. 5. Bessemer had relatively few inventions. 6. Benjamin Huntsman is a well-known British metallurgist of the 18th century. 7. He re-discovered the process of making strong steel.

Exercise 3. Look through the text and find words which mean opposite of:

enter

cause

worsen

minor

birth

last

light modern

loose

war

hard

earlier

Such words are called antonyms.

Exercise 4. Put the jumbled sentences in the right order to get an

organized text.

1. From the walls George Peregrine's grandparents, painted by well-known painters, looked down upon husband and wife.

2. The Peregrines were having breakfast.

3. Though they were alone and the table was long, they sat at the opposite ends of it.

4. All this happened two or three years before the war.

5. They didn't speak much to each other.

6. She looked at her letters.

7. The son brought in the morning post.

8. He opened The Times and began to read it.

9. George noticed that his wife hadn't opened the letters.

10. They finished breakfast and rose from the table.

Oral Practice

Meeting People. Formulas of Introduction. Polite Phrases.

Greetings. Leaving

Hi! Bye-bye

Hello! Bye

How do you do? Good-bye

(Good) morning/afternoon/evening Have a nice day

How are you? So long

Nice/Glad to meet you Remember me to . . .

Haven't seen you for ages

Fancy meeting you here

Gratitude Replies to expressions of gratitude

Thank you (very much) Not at all

Thanks a lot Don't mention it

Thank you for (+ ing) You are welcome

Much obliged My pleasure

Introductions Replies

Meet my friend, her name is . . . Nice to meet you

Let me introduce my friend to you. Glad to meet you

Exercise 1. Make up short dialogues using the patterns.

1. introducing strangers to each other.

2. expressing gratitude for smth

3. greeting and leaving each other.

Exercise 2. Learn the conversation by heart. Make a conversation

of your own using the patterns.

At a meeting

Ben: Well, good morning. Before we start our meeting, let us introduce

ourselves. My name is Ben Green. I'm from Melbourn. I'm a civil

engineer and work for a firm. I'm thirty-two years old, married, with

two children. I'm going in for tennis and football. That's I think. all

about me. Who's the next?

Susan: I'm Susan Murphy. I live in York and work as a teacher of English.

I'm single. When I have free time I like gardening.

Peter: And my name is Peter O'Brien. I'm a computer programmer in IBM.

I'm 29 years old, divorced, no children. I'm interested in books and

dogs.

Ben: Sorry, Peter, and where are you from?

Peter: Oh, yes. I'm Irish and live in Belfast.

Unit 3

Text 1

Iron in the Middle Ages

Iron came to Britain long before the reign of William the Conqueror. There is evidence that the forging of iron was the chief trade of the city of Glousester. Yet iron continued to be scarce in England.

For some hundred years after the Norman Conquest considerable quantities of iron and steel were exported to Britain by Germany and other continental countries. The merchants who brought metals were known as “German merchants of the Steelyard”. The great quantities of iron and steel were sold at the Steel Yard in London.

According to the Act of Parliament no iron was to be carried out of the country. Some iron was manufactured in England in the reign of Henry III, but much was still imported from Germany and later from Spain.

During the reign of Edward I (1239 - 1307) there were seventy-two hearths in the Forest of Dean - a source of iron ore. By the time of Edward III (1312 - 1377) the chief centres were Kent and Sussex. That iron was still of great value is shown by an inventory of the king's possessions, in which his iron pots, pans, and other household utensils are classed as jewels and valuables.

No sensational developments in the manufacture of iron and steel had taken place; the local smiths converted the raw ore into wrought iron by means of charcoal obtained by burning timber from the forest round about and worked up this iron into the required shapes.

In the 14th century the direct extraction of wrought iron from the ore was gradually displaced by first carbonizing the metal, so turning it into cast iron. This displacement method has continued steadily up to the present day.

During the 14th and 15th centuries England continued to import iron and steel from the continent. The growing importance of the industry gave its owners a political influence that grew steadily from that day to this. Improvements in the manufacture of iron had taken place during this period, and the ironmasters succeded in getting Parliament to make laws prohibiting the importation into England of any iron or steel goods already made there. In 1483, for example, an Act was passed prohibiting the importation of knives, tailors' shears, scissors and irons, grid-irons, stock-locks, keys, hingers, spurs, bits, stittups, buckles for shoes, iron wire, iron candlesticks, grates and many other such objects.

Minor advances in the art of making iron continued up to the times of Elizabeth I and James I. Production increased, especially in Sussex. By this time the blast furnace had established itself for the smelting of iron. It continued slowly to rise higher and increase in diameter. The immediate problem confronting the iron manufacturer of the 16th century was the growing shortage of wood from which to make charcoal.

Task 1

Phonetic Exercise

Practise after the speaker and learn to pronounce the words given below.

reign /rein/; conqueror /'konk?r?/; Glousester /'gloust?/; manufacture / m?nju'fkt??/; hearth /ha:? /; value /'v lju:/; utensils /ju:'tensilz/; valuables /'vlju?blz/; wrought /ro:t/; import /im'po:t/; prohibit /pr?`hibit/; knives /naivz/; key /ki:/; spur /sp?:/; diameter /dai'? mi:t?/.

Task 2.

Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the words and word - combinations

given below. Use them in the sentences of your own.

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; (); (); ; ; , .

Exercise 2. Match the English words and word-combinations given

below with their Russian equivalents.

1. long before 1.

2. to continue steadily up to the 2.

present day 3.

3. in the reign of 4. -

4. to displace gradually by 5.

5. the growing importance 6.

6. to succeed in 7.

7. the great quantaties of

8. blast furnace 8. -

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions

1. When did iron first come to Britain? 2. Was it imported from Germany? 3. What shows that iron was of great value in Medieval Britain? 4. What displaced the direct extraction of wrought iron? 5. Why did the owners of metal industry get a political influence? 6. Did Parliament play an important role in the development of metal industry?

Exercise 4. Complete the following statements by choosing the answer

which you think fits best. Why are the other answers unsuitable?

1. That iron was of great importance is shown by an inventory of king's

possessions because:

a) things made of iron were classed as jewels and valuables.

b) King Edward III wrote about their value himself.

c) things made of iron could be used only by the king.

2. The owners of metal industry got a political influence because:

a) they had much money.

b) the industry grew in importance.

c) people wanted so.

3. The importation into England of any iron or steel goods was prohibited

by Parliament because:

a) it was necessary to develop native industry.

b) the native production stopped.

c) England didn't need them.

4. The immediate problem confronting the iron manufacturer was:

a) the lack of skills in steel-making.

b) the growing shortage of wood.

c) the establishment of the blast furnaces.

Exercise 5. Give a written Russian translation of the following passages.

1. The chemical process for extracting a metal from its ore is called smelting. Iron ore is heated with limestone and coke, which is mostly made up of carbon. Coke and limestone remove the unwanted parts of the iron ore to leave almost pure iron, which still contains some carbon. Steel is made by removing more carbon and adding other metals.

2. Gold is much softer than copper, so it is easier to hammer into shape. It is not very strong. A gold knife might look very fine but would not have been much use for skinning a bear, so from early times gold became the metal for ornaments. Copper is much harder; it would have been much more difficult for early man to shape; but the finished article was more durable.

3. These metal-workers were masters of the ancient craft of gold-beating, a process by which gold is beaten between skins until it is reduced to a very thin sheet. The Egyptians could produce sheets only one five-thousandth of an inch thick, and used them for gilding wooden statues and for other decorative purposes.

Task 3.

Focus on Grammar

Plurals

Singular Plural

1) advice, information, knowledge, 1) all garmets and instruments,

news, baggage, luggage, furniture, consisting of two parts:

rubbish, (air)craft, quid , mumps trousers, glasses,binoculars

This news is very important. His trousers look nice.

2) names of sciences: mathematics, 2) other words in -ics

acoustics, physics, linguistics hysterics, mathematics (as a

Acoustics is a branch of physics. school subject)

3)Expressions of quantity and sums Mathematics are not my best

of money are usually regarded as subject.

units and take a singular verb: 3)wages, police, clothes, cattle

25 dollars is much money for him. The police are after him.

4) premises, quaters

(accomodation)

These premises are not bad.

Words which have Greek or Latin forms make their plurals according to the rules of these languages:

datum - data; phenomenon - phenomena; axis - axes

Now there is a tendency with common Greek or Latin words to make the plural according to the rules of the English language:

dogma - dogmas; formula - formulas

But formulae is used in scientific English.

Exercise 1. Choose the correct form of the verb.

1. Athletics . . . his hobby. (to be) 2. The news . . . awaiting him at home. (to be) 3. Mathematics . . . an exact science. (to be) 4. My luggage . . . of a bag and ranch of philosophy. (to be) 12. Physics . . . never been my best subject. (to have) 13. The new furniture you've just bought . . . very comfortable. (to be) 14. Her glasses . . . been broken. (to have)

Exercise 2. Write the plural for each of the following nouns.

potato, mother-in-law, memorandum, criterion, Frenchman, lady, child, wolf, fish, calf, glass, deer, pyjamas, donkey, torch, box, handkerchief, foot, boot, sheep, mouse, ox, tooth, army, phenomenon.

Exercise 3. Make the verbs agree

1. There (was/were) many people in the room. 2. Mathematics (is/are) not my best subject. 3. Look at my trousers. (They/It) (is/are) dirty. 4. Your scissors (need/needs) sharpening. 5. (This/These) new pair of jeans (is/are) very smart. 6. You (was/were) at their party yesterday.Please,tell us a few words about it. 7. Anyone who (have/has) a head for figures (is/are) welcome to work at this Institute. 8. The full armour and a Damascus sword (complete/completes) his private collection. 9. About two million dollars (has/have) been made at the last auction. 10. Neither of them (know/knows) this rule. 11. Either he or his sister (is/are) coming tomorrow night. 12. More than twenty aircraft (was/were) destroyed in the raid. 13. Mass media (is/are) not very popular nowadays. 14. She is one of the best engineers that (have/has) ever graduated from this faculty. 15. The news of his arrival (have/has) spread very quickly. 16. Dynamics (is/are) a branch of mechanics.

Exercise 3. Read the poem and pay attention to the plurals.

Write these words both in the singular and the plural.

Why English is so hard

We'll begin with a box, and the plural is boxes;

But the plural of ox should be oxen, not oxes,

Then one fowl is goose, but two are called geese;

Yet the plural of moose should never be meese.

You may find a lone mouse or a whole lot of mice.

But the plural of house is houses not hice.

If the plural of man is always called men,

Why shouldn't the plural of pen be called pen?

The cow in the plural may be cows or kine,

But the plural of vow is vows not vine.

And I speak of a foot, and you show me your feet,

But I give you a boot - would a pair be called beet?

If one is a tooth and a whole set are teeth,

Why shouldn't the plural of booth be called beeth?

If the singular is this and the plural is these,

Should the plural of kiss be nicknamed kese?

Then one may be that, and three may be those,

Yet, the plural of hat would never be hose.

We speak of a brother and also of brethren,

But though we say mother, we never say methren.

The masculine pronouns are he, his and him.

But imagine the feminine she, shis and shim!

So our English, I think you'll agree,

Is the trickiest language you ever did see.

Expressing the Present

1. The Present Simple is used to report actions in general, or actions that happen repeatedly.

The earth goes round the sun.

I get up at 7 o'clock every morning.

2. The Present Continuous is used to describe the actions which are happening at the time of speaking.

She is in Britain now, she is studying English.

Where is he? He is playing tennis.

Present Continuous .

Some verbs are not used in Continuous Tense: want, know, belong, understand, see, love, hate, forget, seem, remember, like, need.

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into Russian.Comment on the use of tenses.

  1. It is still raining. 2. The woman, who is speaking with my sister, is our neighbour. 3. This man speaks English very well, but it is difficult for me to understand him now because he is speaking so fluently. 4. Where are you hurrying to? - I'm afraid to miss the 3 o'clock train. My friend is coming with it. 5. Light is a form of electromagnetic energy that travels very quickly on different frequencies, or wavelengths. 6. Stop smoking. Usually nobody smokes here. 7. Look! Ann is introducing Mary to John. 8. Gravity keeps the moon on its orbit around the earth.. 9. Where are you going this Sunday? - This Sunday I'm going to my friend's birthday party, but usually at weekends I go to the country. 10. Scientists are still discussing the origin of the universe.

Exercise 5. Put the verb into the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous.

1. He . . . (to work) on a new book now. 2. What is the weather like? It . . . (to rain) a little. 3. The concert . . . (to start) at 7.30. 4. Tom . . . (to want) to visit him but he . . . (to play) volleyball now. 5. Water . . . (to boil) at 100 degrees Celcius. 6. This machine . . . (not to work). It broke down this morning. 7. That machine . . . (not to work). It broke down a year ago. 8. You can borrow my pen. I . . . (not to need) it now. 9. She is an engineer but she . . . (to sit) with her baby at the moment. 10. This coat . . . (to belong) to me. 11. We usually . . . (to work) in our garden at weekends. 12. I . . . (not to drive) but my father . . . (to teach) me now. 13. I . . . (to want) to go there right now. 14. Listen to him. Do you understand what language he . . . ( to speak)?

Exercise 6. Correct the sentences in which the Present Simple and the

Present Continuous are misused.

1. I am thinking you are wrong. 2. Why didn't you go to the country yesterday? It was raining hard. 3. Are you believing me? 4. Why don't you want to join us? I am finishing the book I must give back tomorrow. 5. The moon is going round the earth. 6. Where is Mother? She is working in the garden. 7. I am usually going to work by bus. 8. Every day I am training at 9. Are you happy? I'm very happy. I am going to get married. 10. She is leaving for Paris tomorrow morning. 11. No one knows that Miss Piper is studying mathematics. 12. At present Doctor Atkinson is working on a very serious paper which he is going to deliver at a symposium in Glasgow next week. 13. He is always explaining simple facts. 14. Miss Piper knows practical mathematics - she can add, substract, multiply and divide.

Exercise 7. Read the dialogue given below, paying attention to expressing

the Present. Make up a dialogue of your own, using the model.

A - Good morning, Sir.

B - Good morning.

A - Is the manager in?

B - Yes, he is, but he is engaged at the moment, I'm afraid. Please, sit down

and wait a minute.

A - OK. But is he really busy? What is he doing? Isn't he expecting me?

B - He is talking to a visitor from Germany just now. They are discussing

a contract.

Text 2

Pre - reading task

1. What do you know about the Vikings?

2. When did they come to Britain?

3. Why were they successful fighters?

4. How did they harden the metal?

5. Describe the process of building up the blades.

The Coming of the Vikings

After the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 AD, there was little progress in the working of metals for many years. Iron-smelting, tin and lead mining, and the general metal-working developed by the Romans in occupied countries almost ceased. What metal-work was still carried on was of poor quality.

Then, about 800 AD, a new power entered northern Europe - the Vikings. These men from the north, Norsemen, were great seafarers and fighters. They owed much of their success to their skill with metal. Their swords were much longer and stronger than those used by the Romans, and with these they won their battles.

In those days it was difficult to make good swords because of the lack of furnaces hot enough to melt iron sufficiently to treat it with carbon and turn it into steel. All that could be done was to heat the iron in charcoal, which is rich in carbon. Some carbon from the charcoal found its way into the metal and hardened it on the surface, like the crust on a loaf.

The swordmakers built up their blades by taking a number of thin strips, which had been hardened on their surfaces, and twisting them together in various patterns. The metal was then reheated and hammered (forged) until it became a solid piece with hardened strips running right through the blade. As well as making blade strong, this method also created an interesting wavy patterns on the metal.

Task 2.

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1. Here are the answers to some questions about the text.

Work out the questions.

1) The Roman Empire fell in 476 AD.

2) The Romans were skilled in iron-making, tin and lead mining, and the general metal- working.

3) No, there was little progress in the working of metals after the fall of the Roman Empire.

4) The Vikings owed much of their military success to their skill with metals.

5) It was difficult for the Vikings to make swords because of the lack of good furnaces.

6) Yes, the Vikings had their own method of making swords.

7) They heated the iron in charcoal.

8) Yes, this method also created an interesting wavy pattern on the metal.

Exercise 2. Read the text again and agree or disagree with the

statements given below.

1. Between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Vikings invasion there was much progress in the working of metals.

2.The Vikings' swords were much longer and stronger than those used by the Romans.

3. In those days men possessed good equipment to melt iron sufficiently.

4. The Vikings could turn iron into steel.

5. The Vikings didn't use reheating and hammering in the process of sword making.

Exercise 3. Look through the text and find the synonyms to the words

given below.

decline; advance; stop; outstanding; construct; expertness; mastery; deficiency; achievement; model.

Exercise 4. Translate the following idioms into Russian. Use them in the

sentences of your own.

a) To have too many irons

in the fire. .

b) To iron out differences. .

c) Strike while the iron is hot .

d) To rule with an iron hand

e) Iron will

f) Hammer in ,

Exercise 5. Arrange the jumbled sentences into the organized text.

1. This was a new method of discovering truth by experiment.

2. One event of his life particularly interested Edison, a great inventor and scientist.

3. One day he invited a number of professors and students to meet him in one of the squares of Pisa where there was a very high tower.

4. It was this method which Edison used throughout his life.

5. Gallileo didn't believe the scientists of the time that a heavy weight dropped from a height more quickly than a light weight.

6. He went to the top of the tower and dropped two iron balls with different weight.

7. They struck the ground at the same time.

8. Thomas Edison loved to tell the story of Galileo, a great Italian scientist of the 17th century.

Oral Practice

Making an appointment. Telephone calls.

Patterns

Questions Replies

1. Could I make an appointment with Mr.Brown?

1. Yes, please. He can see you at 2 o'clock.

2. Could I make an appointment for

Tuesday?

2. I'll have to check it with Mr. Brown, I'm afraid.

3. I'd like to speak to Mr.Brown

appointment?

3. Sure. Can I fix an appointment

while I'm here. Can I make an for you for 2.30?

4. Should I phone before coming?

4. No, it is fixed. Do please call to confirm the meeting.

Telephone Calls

1. Could I speak to Mr.Brown,

1. Just a minute, please.

2. Could you put me to through Mr.Brown, please?

2. Who is speaking/calling,please?

3. Could I have extension 2345, please?

3.Hold the line, please.

I'm putting you through now.

4. Could I leave a message for Mr.Brown?

4. Sure/Yes, of course/certainly.

5. Could you ask Mr.Brown to call me back?

5. I'm afraid he is not available until Sunday.

6. Can I make a collect call?

The number is . .

6. Hold on, please. Oh, I'm afraid the line is engaged/busy.

7. Well, thanks for the information.

7. You are welcome. Thanks for calling.

Exercise 1. Learn the dialogues by heart and make up similar dialogues

of your own using the patterns.

1.Peter: Could I make an appointment with Mr.Brown?

Secretary: Certainly. What day would suit you?

Peter: Monday or Tuesday.

Secretary: Let me see. Oh, Monday is busy, I'm afraid. Will Tuesday

2 o'clock be all right with you?

Peter: Thank you very much.

2.Peter: May I speak to Susan, please?

Susan: Speaking.

Peter: This is Peter O'Brien. Can I see you tomorrow? I'd like to invite you

to the theatre.

Susan: Thank you. I'd love to go there with you.

Peter: So, see you at 6 sharp at the entrance.

Susan: Fixed, then. I'm looking forward to meeting you.

3.Ben: Is that Mr. Hardy's office?

Secretary: Yes.

Ben: My name is Ben Green. I've got an appointment with Mr.Holt

for tonight but something urgent has turned up. Could you put

our meeting off till Wednesday night?

Secretary: Hold the line, please. I'll pass the information on to him . . .

Oh, yes, Mr.Holt can meet you on Wednesday same time.

Exercise 2. You have an appointment with Mr.Brown, so:

- introduce yourself

- explain that you have an appointment with him

- explain the purpose of your visit

- accept or decline the offers (for example, you have another appointment)

- explain that you need to confirm your return flight for tomorrow evening

Exercise 3. What would you say if somebody is phoning your brother but:

1. he is not in

2. he is in the next room

3. he is coming only tomorrow

4. he cannot answer the call immediately because he is busy

Exercise 4. Practise making arrangements.

You phone someone

Someone phones you

a) You want to make an appointment with a dentist. You are free on Monday, Tuesday and Thursday. Phone the dentst's secretary and arrange time.

a) You are the dentist's secretary. The dentist is only free on Monday, and Friday. His working hours are 9.30-12.30.

b)You want to invite your friend to a party on Saturday. It begins at 8.00. Phone and arrange when and where to meet.

b)Your friend invites you to a party. You'd love to go.Arrange to meet some-where in town. At what time?

c) You need a passport photograph. You are free every afternoon this week. Phone and make an appointment.

c) You are a photographer.You are free on Wednesday and Friday this week, between 11.00 and 13.00.

Unit 4

Text 1

Iron - Smelting without Charcoal

The First Blast Furnaces

So far, no furnace in Europe had been hot enough to melt iron to a liquid state. All that could be produced was a `spongy' mass from which impurities had to be hammered out. However, design of furnaces improved over the centuries, and about the year 1400 very efficient blast furnaces were introduced by the Germans. They had found that a blast of air from water-powered bellows increased the temperature, though the iron still did not liquify. It became soft and spongy, worked its way down through the burning charcoal, and collected at the bottom of the furnace.

Furnaces were usually built about ten or fifteen feet high, but to economise on fuel a new one was built thirty feet high. Although the internal temperature in this was no higher, the iron arrived at the bottom in a completely liquid state. Not only could the metal be run off into moulds, but many of the impurities (which had previously to be hammered out) separated automatically from the melted iron. The reason for this tremendous stride in metallurgy was simple: the height of the furnace. The soft `sponge' iron took so long to seep down through the charcoal that it absorbed a great deal of carbon. It became carburised, and as the melting point of carburised iron is 350o C less than `sponge' iron, it became liquid.

By about the year 1600, iron production in Britain was beginning to suffer from lack of fuel. For 3,000 years all iron-smelting, both here and abroad, had been done with charcoal. Charcoal is partly-burned wood. In Britain, timber was running short and it was impossible for the iron-makers to equal the output of a country such as Sweden, where timber was abundant.

Fortunately for Britain a Quaker, Abraham Darby, found a way to do without charcoal altogether. In his iron factory at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire, he made many experiments using coke, and finally succeeded. There were technical difficulties to overcome, and at first Darby kept the process secret for the benefit of his family. Later his methods were adopted throughout Europe. No longer dependant on dwindling forests, Britain remained her position as a leading iron producer.

Task 1.

Phonetic Exercise

Practise after the speaker and learn to pronounce the words given below.

liquid /'likwid/; spongy /'sponji/; design /di'zain/; liquify /likwi'fai/; automatically /o:t?`mtik?li/; metallurgy /'metl?:ji/; carburised /'ka:bjuraizd/; technical /'teknik?l/; throughout / ? ru'aut/.

Task 2.

Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the words and word -

combinations given below.

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; -; ; ; ; .

Exercise 2. Match the English words and word-combinations given

below with their Russian equivalents.

1. to melt iron to a liquid state 1.

2. to hammer out impurities 2.

3. efficient blast furnaces 3.

4. at the bottom of the furnace 4.

5. to separate from 5.

6. melting point 6.

7. to equal the output 7. .

8. to be abundant 8.

9. for the benefit of 9.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:

1. When did the first blast furnaces appear? 2. What is the work of a blast furnace based on? 3. Does the productivity of blast furnaces depend on their height? 4. Why did iron production in Britain begin to suffer? 5. What did Abraham Darby introduce into the process of iron-making?

Exercise 4. Complete the following statements by choosing the answer

which you think fits best. Are the other answers unsuitable?

Why?

1. No furnace in Europe could melt iron to a liquid state because:

a) there were too many impurities in it.

b) they were not hot enough.

c) water-powered bellows didn't work properly.

2. The reason for the tremendous stride in metallurgy was:

a) the height of the furnace.

b) the shape of the furnace.

c) the internal temperature of the furnace.

3. Iron production in Britain began to suffer from:

a) the exhaustion of the deposits of iron ore.

b) political situation.

c)lack of fuel.

4. Abraham Darby succeeded in his experiments to do without charcoal

because:

a) he used coke.

b) he hammered out the impurities.

c) he mixed iron with carbon.

Exercise 5. Give a written Russian translation of the following passage.

1. In addition the rapid developments in the use of iron and steel during the Industrial Age brought with them greatly increased demand for other metals, particularly copper, tin and lead. Moreover, the demand was not only for greater tonnages but also for a far greater variety of metals. Many of these metals were one hundred years ago little known names in the periodic table, but have now come into prominence and have become marketable commodities. It is accordingly not surprising that there have been more notable advances in metallurgy during the century under review than in the whole history of this ancient art.

2. Limestone is included in the furnace because it mixes and combines with sand, clay and stones in the ore. They form a waste material, called slag, which floats on top of the molten metal.

Task 3.

Focus on Grammar

Indefinite and Distributive Adjectives and Pronouns

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

some no any

somebody(one) nobody (none) anybody(one)

something nothing anything

somewhere nowhere anywhere

Any and its compounds can be used in negative sentences, if the predicate is negative or with hardly, barely, scarcely.

I don't want to buy anything here.

I have hardly any time.

Any and its compounds can be used in affirmative sentences in the meaning of `practically every'.

You may take any book you like.

Some is used in questions, when the answer `yes' is expected.

May I take some coffee?

Everyone/ everybody/ everything + singular verb

Everyone wants to go there. Everything is ready.

Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with some, any, no, every and their compounds

1. Does . . . know where he lives? 2. . . . wants to speak to you on the phone. 3. He is a real . . ., a man without wealth or . . . interests. 4. You may borrow . . . money from me. 5. I have hardly . . . books which may be of interest to you. 6. . . . dictionary will give you the meaning of these words. 7. Have you ever heard . . . of his lectures? 8. Would . . . like a drink? 9. Do you want . . . from the chemist? 10. I don't want to go . . . this summer. 11. I am sure that . . . there lives a person who will fall in love with you.

Exercise 2. Translate into Russian. Explain the use of indefinite adjectives

and pronouns.

1. Dr. Greystone is not interested in anything outside his field. He is an atomic physicist and he does not want to be anything else. 2. Professor Mellowson is walking in Kentington Gardens. There are many people here. Some are lying on the grass and others are walking. But Professor does not notice anything or anybody. 3. What book shall I bring you? - Any you like. 4. We looked for the man, but there was nobody around. 5. He comes here every day. You can find him in any time between 2 and 4. 6. I think he has been everywhere. There is nothing to surprise him. 7. The symposium will be devoted to some problems of relationship between science and art. 8. Miss White has no taste at all. Her room is simply awful. 9. I'm very thirsty. Is there any juice in the house? - No, there isn't any, I'm afraid, but there is some mineral water. 10. I'm very hungry, but I don't want to go anywhere to eat out tonight. - Then there is some bread and butter in the fridge.

Exercise 3. Choose the appropriate indefinite pronoun or adverb out of those given in parenthesis. Explain your choice. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1.What book shall I bring. - (Some, any) you like. 2. If you have (something, anything) against me, speak out. 3. Why are (some, no) people so boring? 4. I don't think I'll go (anywhere, nowhere) this summer. 5. I never put (no, any) sugar in my tea. 6. Where there (no, some) objections? 7. (Sombody, nobody) tells me (nothing, anything). Could you tell me (something, everything)? 8. What books do you need? - (Any, no) you can give to me. 9. He took out (some, no) strange instrument from his bag. 10. I think he knows (everything, something). He is a real Mr. know-all. 11. We have heard (any, some) news that might interest you.

Text 2

Pre - reading task

1. What do you already know about the Crusades?

2. Find the key words in each paragraph and make up a summary of the text.

3. Find the answers to the following questions:

a) Why did the English warriors go to Jerusalem?

b) What does the legend say?

c) What can you say about the level of metallurgical development in the

East at the time of the Crusades?

The Crusades

In 1066 the Norman conquest of Britain brought England into closer relationship with France and other European countries. When the Crusades started, English warriors joined their continental brethren in trying to gain control of Jerusalem.

The fall of Rome did not affect life in eastern countries in quite the same way that it had done in Europe. The crusaders, coming from rough, comfortless homes - even those of them who lived in castles - were astonished by the luxury and elegance of the eastern countries. They longed to imitate the splendid architecture they saw, and they found that the eastern metal-workers were superior to their own. The Muslims did not have any additional new metals, but possessed greater technical skill in the arts of forging, casting and working the known ones.

There is a legend which tells of a meeting in the desert between Richard the Lion Heart and Saladin, the Muslim leader. Comparing weapons, Richard smashed through an iron bar with his mighty two-handed sword. In reply, Saladin flicked a silk scarf into the air and sliced it in half with his razor-sharp scimitar. Though not a true story, this legend makes a very apt comment on the metallurgical superiority of the Muslims' swordsmiths. To retain such a sharp edge, Saladin's blade must have been made of far superior metal.

The Muslims had a special method of making sword-blades which they had learned from India, hundreds of years before the Crusades. Blades made by this technique were known as Damascene. As well as being very strong, they had beautiful surfaces which shimmered like watered silk.

Task 2.

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1. Here are the answers to some questions about the text.

Work out the questions.

1. The fall of Rome did not affect life in eastern countries.

2. The Norman conquest of Britain took place in 1066.

3. The main aim of English warriors was to gain control of Jerusalem.

4. The Muslims were skilled in the arts of forging and casting.

5. The legend comments on the metallurgical superiority of the Muslims' swordmakers.

Exercise 2. Read the text carefully and agree or disagree with the

statements given below.

1. When the Crusades started, English warriors didn't want to join them

2. The Crusaders were astonished by the luxury and elegance of the eastern countries.

3. The Muslims knew some additional new metals.

4. Richard smashed through an iron bar with his mighty two-handed sword.

5. Saladin's blade was made of a superior material.

6. The Muslims invented their special method of making sword blades.

Exercise 3. Look through the text and find words or phrases which mean

the same as:

win; crave; hear of; be more experienced; way; produce;

be surprised; throw; land; glitter; crude; proficiency.

Exercise 4. Translate the following idioms into Russian. Use them

in the sentences of your own.

1. To cross swords with someone. = To start fighting, arguing.

2. Rough and ready. = not finished in detail; rough but ready for use now

3. A rough guess. = an approximate calculation

4. To take the rough with the smooth. = to endure smth without complaint

5. To make headway. = to make progress

6. To make up for lost time. = to work harder after loosing time

7.To make much ado about nothing. = to make much noise about smth unimportant.

8.He'll throw a fit. = he'll react very angrily

9.To make bricks without straw = to try to do smth impossible

Exercise 5. Arrange the jumbled sentences into the organized text.

1. The Crusaders led by Richard the Lion Heart wore the heavy armour.

2. The knights in Richard's army wore chain mail.

3. On top of the hood of chain mail the crusader wore an iron helm.

4. It helped them in hand-to-hand fighting against the lighty armed Saracens.

5. Their legs were protected by long stockings made of the same kind of iron links.

6. In all this armour the crusaders fought under the burning sun of Syria.

7. But it was uncomfortable to wear in the heat of the Palestine desert.

Oral Practice

Giving and Rejecting Advice. Visiting a Doctor.

Patterns

Giving advice

Rejecting advice

1. Why don't you do it?

I'm afraid I can't do that, I have no time.

2. What about doing it?

I don't think it's a good idea.No, that's impossible.

Accepting advice

What a good idea!

That's a good idea!

Thanks, I'll do it.

Yes, all right.

Here are some symptoms that people complain of when they go to see a doctor:

I've got a temperature I'm running a high temperature

I've got a sore throat I don't feel(am not feeling) very well

I'm constipated I keep feeling dizzy

I feel sick I've got a diarrhoea

My arm hurts I've got a pain in my (leg, arm, chest ..)

I've got a stomach (back, tooth, ear, head) ache

(there are only 5 aches, the rest are pains!)

This is what the doctor might tell you to do:

Keep warm Go straight to bed

Stay in bed for a couple of days Take one/two tablets after your meals

Don't eat any rich food Take this prescription to the chemist

Take the medicine before you go to bed

Exercise 1. Learn the dialogue by heart and make up a dialogue of

your own using the patterns.

Receptionist: Good morning. What can I do for you?

Paula: Good morning. I'd like an appointment with the dentist, please.

Receptionist: Yes, certainly. What's the matter? Is it urgent?

Paula: I'm afraid it is. I've got a terrible toothache. I've been having

it for two days. It's very nasty. And I had my regular check up

only three weeks ago.

Receptionist: Well, Dr.Brown can see you today at 10.30. Is that OK?

Paula: Yes, that's fine.

Receptionist: What's your name and address?

Exercise 2. Pair work

1. You are a doctor. Your partner is a patient who is ill. Find out the information you need to complete the form and tell your partner what to do using the patterns.

Medical Record Card

name of patient __________________________________

date of visit __________________________________

symptoms __________________________________

recommended treatment __________________________

________________________________________________

  1. Pretend that you are ill. Decide what symptoms you have and how long you have had them. Your partner is a doctor. Answer his questions and make sure you understand what you have to do.

3. You meet your friend who doesn't look well. Ask him/her what the matter is and give advice using the patterns.

4. Talk to your partner about his/her health and tell him/her about yours.

Exercise 3. In pairs guess the meanings of these common idioms and

discuss the situations when you can use them.

1. He wouldn't hurt a fly.

2. People should not break the laws: ill-gotten, ill-spent.

3. When he returned from the hospital he was `skin and bones'.

4. The moment he saw her after all those twenty years he understood that the heart once truly loved never forgets. Chapter 2

The Age of Steel

Unit 1

Text 1

The Vast Growth of the Iron and Steel Industry

When James Watt invented the steam engine in the latter part of the 18th century, the whole industrial scene changed. Steam power made possible the `Industrial Revolution' in Britain. Vast quantities of metal were needed for the railways pioneered by the Stevensons, and the huge iron ships and bridges of Brunel. In Sheffield, the centre of the iron and steel industry, the output of metals multiplied fifty times in thirty-five years.

During this expansion, improved tools were invented for use in the factories and many steam-powered tools were invented and developed. One of the most famous of these tools was the steam-hammer designed by James Nasmyth about 1830. It was used to forge the huge shafts and plates required in the ships of the time, and could be accurately controlled to give heavy blows or light taps. In fact, to impress visitors to the foundry an egg was placed on the anvil and cracked by the hammer without breaking the egg shell. Other machine-tools invented and developed included the rolling-mill which could roll metal, either hot or cold, into thin sheets.

A British metallurgist Henry Cort took out a patent in 1783 for a mill to roll iron sheets and bars. In 1784 he improved the puddling process by hollowing out the bottom of the reverberatory furnace so as to contain the molten metal in this puddle. Railway lines could be made in this way, the hole in the press being suitably shaped to the section of the railway-line. Puddling played a great role in the development of iron and steel industry in Britain during the Industrial Revolution.

These tremendous advances in engineering were matched by improvements in the quality of metals, and the metallurgists were as active and successful as the engineers. Between 1750 and 1850 no less than thirty-five more metals were discovered. Many of these were unimportant but three were outstanding, nickel, cobalt, and manganese, the latter to play a vital part in steel production.

Task 1.

Phonetic Exercise

Practise after the speaker and learn to pronounce the words given below.

engine /'enjin/; industrial /in'd/\ stri?l/; industry /'ind /\ stri/; revolution / rev?`lu: ? n/; multiplied /'m/\ ltiplaid/; designed /di'zaind/; forge /fo:j/; shaft /?a:ft/; required /ri'kwai?d/; accurately /' kjur?tli/; anvil /' nvil/; machine /m?`?i:n/; extrusion /'eks'tru: ? n/; tremendous /tri'mend?s/; engineering /enji'ni?ri?/; reverberatory /ri'v?: b?r?t?ri/.

Task 2.

Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the words and word-

combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own.

; ; ; ; ; ; (); ; ; ; (); .

Exercise 2. Match the English words and word-combinations given

below with their Russian equivalents.

1. the latter part of the century 1.

2. vast quantities of smth 2.

3. output of metals 3.

4. to impress visitors 4.

5. anvil 5. -

6. railway lines 6. /

7. advances in engineering 7.

8. the quality of metals 8.

9. to play a vital part 9. -

10. steel production 10.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions

1. When did James Watt invent the steam engine? 2. What was the result of his invention? 3. Where was steam-hammer first used? 4. Who invented the rolling-mill? 5. What is the purpose of the rolling mill? 6. What is the puddling process used for? 7. Were any new metals discovered between 1750 and 1850?

Exercise 4. Choose the word or phrase which best completes each

sentence.

1. . . . iron is a relatively soft silvery metal.

a) clean b) mixed c) pure

2. All but 20 of the over 100 elements identified to date are . . .

a) metals b) gases c) non-metals

3. Only 7 metals are common in the earth's . . .

a) surface b) crust c) underground

4. Copper was the first metal . . . by man.

a)invented b) opened c) discovered

5. The steam-hammer was . . . by James Nasmyth.

a) elaborated b) designed c) worked out

6. Gold, silver and copper have always been . . . for their qualities.

a)praised b) respected c) valued

Exercise 5. Give a written translation of the following passages.

1. Thomas, Sidney Gitchrist (1850 - 1885), a British metallurgist. Educated at Dulwich college. Served as a clerk at the Court of London and attended evening lectures at the Royal Mining School. While looking for ways and means of making steel from high-phosphorus pig iron in the Bessemer converter, he devised (with assistance from his cousin Peter Gilchrist) in 1878 what later became known as the Thomas-Gilchrist process in England or the Thomas process on the continent. Took out several patents covering the process between 1877 and 1882. Predicted that the high-phosphorus slag from his process could be used as a soil conditioner and stimulant to plant growth.

2. Obuhov, Pavel Matveyevich (1820 - 1869), a Russian metallurgist. Graduated from the St.Petersburg Corps of Mining Engineers with honours in 1843. Was sent to work in the Urals. Was appointed Manager of the Zlatoust Arms Factory in 1854, where he completed his improvements of the crucible process. Was granted in 1857 the privilege of using his process for the large-scale production of high-quality cast steel. Designed in the late 1850s a factory to make steel field guns, which went into operation at the Prince Mihail Factory in 1860. This started the use of cast steel for gun barrels and was a turning point for Russian artillery. Obuhov's steel field gun which had fired over 4000 rounds without damage was awarded a gold medal at the World Exhibition in London in 1862. Elected a corresponding member of the Artillery Committee and appointed Chief of the Zlatoust Mining District in 1861. Headed the construction of a major steel works in St. Petersburg in 1863, later named after him.

Task 3.

Focus on Grammar

Present Perfect And Perfect Continuous

The Present Perfect Tense is used when there is a connection with the present.

I have done my homework, so I can go for a walk now.

The Present Perfect Tense is used to give new information or to announce a recent happening.

I've met him. He is a very nice person.

The Present Perfect Tense is used with just, ever, never, yet, lately, already, of late, for ages, recently, this week/year.

The Present Perfect Tense always tells us about the present. The Past Simple tells us about the past.

He saw wolves in the forest. (but there are no wolves now,

or he is not alive)

He has seen wolves in the forest (they are still there, so the

forest is dangerous)

Present Perfect .

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense = to have been + Present Participle

This tense is used for an action which began in the past and is still continuing (usually with for and since):

I've been waiting for an hour and he hasn't come yet.

, .

Perfect Continuous .

Exercise 1. Translate into Russian. Comment on the use of Tenses.

  1. Stainless steels have successfully made their way into engineering applications. 2.The working of metal in some form has engaged man's efforts for thousands of years. 3. The electrical power industry has traditionally faced corrosion problems. 4. Although many scientists studied motion, it was the great Sir Isaak Newton who formulated the theories of motion. 5. Studies have also shown hardness of stainless steels. 6. Chemistry students put some water into a tube, added some sodium hydroxide and dissolved it. 7. They have recently examined several modern molding machines. 8. The scientists have been working on this problem since 1998. 9. Have you finished your report on resource-saving in non-ferrous metallurgy? You have been working on it for two weeks. 10. For these reasons traditional moulding has taken an advantage over the new methods. 11. The new tecnique resulted in a wide range of material flexibility. 12. Stainless steels have successfully made their way into engineering applications.

Exercise 2. Put the verb into the correct form (Past Simple or Present

Perfect).

1. I . . . (to see) her recently. She . . . (to change) a lot. 2. John . . . (to move) to a new house three days ago. 3. She . . . (to work) at this office for 10 years. Now she . . . (to decide) to retire. 4. I don't think I . . . (to know) your wife. I . . . (not to meet) her. 5. John . . . (to see) Susan last week but he . . . (not to see) her since. 6. This African boy . . . (never to see) snow. 7. It . . . (to happen) when I was out. 8. She . . . (to take) the envelope, . . . (to open) it and . . . (to take) a small sheet of paper out. 9. I . . . (not to see) him of late. 10. When you . . . (to see) Mr.Brown? 11. You are late for the classes again. You . . . (to be) already late once this week. 12. Jill . . . (not to write) to me for nearly a month. 13. It . . . (to be) cold in winter in Moscow as a rule? - Yes, generally it . . . (to be), but this winter it . . . (to be) very warm. 14. Where is Peter? - He . . . (to go) to the library. 15. You . . . (to read) anything by Mark Twain? Which of his novels you . . . (to read) when a child? 16. I . . . (to be) recently to this picture gallery. There . . . (to be) a very interesting exhibition on. 17. Tom . . . (to lose) his key and can't open the door. He . . . (to lose) his key yesterday. 18. I ( to phone) him an hour ago, but he (to be) at home . 19. You (to meet) Peter yet, but I am sure you will like him. 20. I (to start) learning English at school and then (to go on) studying it at the Institute.

Exercise 3. Replace the infinitives by the Past Indefinite, the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous:

1. At last you (to open) the door. I (to ring) for an hour at least, I think. 2. Here you are at last. I (to wait) for you for ten minutes. 3. The workers (to work) hard since Tuesday. 4. The scientists (to carry out) a lot of experiments before they (to get) positive results. 5. It (not to rain) for a long time. 6. He (to work) at this project for a long time and (not to finish) it yet. 7. How long you (to know) her? I (to know) her for three years. 8. Last night my friends and I (to decide) to stay in town for the summer. 9. They (to discover) diamonds in South Africa in the 19th century. 10. The concept of the atom (not to exist) before 1804.

Exercise 4. Learn the following dialogues by heart and make up a dialogue of your own using the model

1.A. Have you ever been to the Swiss Alps?

B. Yes, I have. I went there last winter.

A. And I've never been there. I'd like to go there next year. Did you

ski much when you were there?

B. No, I didn't. I can't ski. I've never skied in my life.

A. I can. I learnt to ski in Canada three years ago.

2.A. Have you heard the latest news?

B. What latest news?

A. John has got married at last.

B. Really? And whom did he marry?

A. Ann Simmons.

B. That girl? I've never liked her, you know.

A. Yes, but he loves her a lot, and it's the most important thing.

Text 2

Pre - reading task

1. What do you know about the geography of Great Britain?

2. What do you know about the climate of Great Britain?

3. What do you know about its political structure?

4. Look through the text and say what facts about this country are new for

you.

A Tight Little Island

Tight Little Island, the title of a film about Britain, best describes the physical and cultural characteristics that condition British politics. The smallness of the island, the uniformity of its climate, and the relative concentration of its population in a small portion of the island - England - provide a distinctive setting.

For Americans, the smallness of Britain is quite striking. The continental United States has a territory of more than 3 million square miles. Britain has only 94.216, less than the state of Oregon. Even more startling, England, with 50,335 square miles of land, is home for more than four-fifth of the entire population. The vast majority of the British population lives in a small area almost exactly the size of the state of New York. More than 46 million persons live in the southeastern portion of Britain; about 12 million of these live in the capital city of London.

The very `tightness' of the British Isles is important to their politics because now, historically, the country has benefited from easy communications. These good communications were important in facilitating economic and social development during the past two centuries. Regional differences within England have traditionally been slight compared with differences within the United States. The differences between England and Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland are more pronounced, but they are not dramatic and involve only about 20 percent of the total population. Probably the best illustration of the `tightness' of Britain is the `awayday' trips offered by British Rail, the state-owned railroad. For a small fare a person can go to even the most remote seaside resort or major city and return the same day.

May be the tightness of the country is the reason for the principal trait of British national character - keeping himself to himself. Britain is a country of reserved and conservative people who like to observe their customs and traditions even if they are completely outdated now.

Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. A monarch is the official head of the state, he opens Parliament, completes the process of passing an act by giving the Royal Assent. Parliament which consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons is the supreme legislative body. The supreme executive body is the Government headed by the Prime Minister. Ministers of the Government represent the political party which has taken office. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the party in power.

Any M.P. may introduce a bill to the Parliament. Every bill has three readings at the House of Commons, then it is passed to the House of Lords. If it is approved by the House of Lords, it will go to the Monarch for signature.

Task 2.

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1. Why do the words `tight little island' best describe Great Britain? 2. Does the geographical position of Great Britain predetermine the national character? 3. What is constitutional monarchy? 4. What is the role of members of Parliament?

Exercise 2. From the choices given choose one word or phrase which could be

substituted for the underlined word or phrase without changing its

meaning.

1. For Americans the smallness of Britain is quite striking.

a. funny b. picturesque c. fascinating

2. The differences between England and Scotland are rather pronounced.

a. deep b. unimportant c. respected

3. They have so many differences that they can hardly come to any agreement.

a. variations b. contradictions c. similarities

4. The British like to keep themselves to themselves.

a. to step back b. to speak much c. to keep aloof

5. She is very reserved. One can hardly hear any word from her.

a. cold b. uncommunicative c. friendly

6. Her clothes are completely outdated. She looks rather funny in that dress.

a. unfashionable b. up-to-date c. modern

7. He took office three years ago. I think that in a year he may be re-elected.

a. took for granted b.came to power c. ran for office

8. The initial step is often the most difficult.

a. quickest b. last c. first

Exercise 3. With the help of additional material make up a report about Great Britain.

Oral Practice

Asking for things. Shopping

Questions Replies

1. What would you like? 1. I'd like a loaf of bread, please.

2. Could you give me a dozen eggs, 2. Certainly, here you are.

please?

3. Would you show me that chop, please? 3. Sure.

4. Can I help you? 4. Yes, I'd like some cheese, please.

5. May I borrow your lighter? 5. Yes, please.

6. Do you sell cigarettes here? 6. I'm sorry we don't have them here

7. What is the price of it?/ 7. It is 2 pounds 99p.

How much is it?

Exercise 1. Match the shops with the things you can buy there.

Use the list.

Post office milk and cheese sugar

Florist newspapers stamps

Bakery bread and cakes medicine

Boots (Chemist's) facial creme flour

Dairy tea and coffee beef

Newsagent fruits and vegetables candies

Grocery apples and pears eggs

Greengrocery oatmeal cereals

Supermarket sweets handcream

sleeping pills perfume

fashion magazines bread

Exercise 2. Learn the dialogues by heart and make up similar dialogues of your own.

I.

Peter: Excuse me please, could you help me?

Shop-assistant: Yes, of course. What can I do for you?

Peter: Could I have a pint of milk and a pound of that cheese?

Shop assistant: You mean Stilton?

Peter: Yes, I like this cheese. It is very special.

II.

Shop assistant: Good morning. Can I help you?

Susan: Oh, yes. I'd like to buy some beef.

Shop assistant: Yes, how much would you like?

Susan: Two pounds.

Shop assistant: Anything else?

Susan: Yes, have you got garlic dressing?

Shop assistant: I'm sorry, we don't have any dressings. Go to the grocery

in Crover Street.

Susan: How much is the beef, please?

Shop assistant: It is 3 pounds 45 p.

Exercise 3. Write your shopping list. Go round the class and try to buy

the items from other students.

Exercise 4. Match the two halves of each proverb correctly. Find the Russian equivalents for these proverbs. What situations will you use them in?

Half a loaf is … and eat it.

One man's meat is another man's… in the eating.

Don't put all your eggs… poison.

You can't have your cake… in the eating

The proof of the pudding… in one basket.

Unit 2

Text 1

More Progress in Steel Production

Iron coming from a blast furnace is called pig-iron, and still contains many impurities which have to be removed before it can be converted into steel. During the Industrial Revolution the demand for steel was so great that better and quicker methods of producing it became necessary. A big step forward was made with the invention of the `Bessemer Converter'.

Henry Bessemer (1813 - 1898) was a British civil engineer and inventor. He was elected to the London Royal Society in 1879. During his life-time he patented over a hundred inventions in various fields of technology.

Henry Bessemer's idea was that the impurities would be burned away if air was blown through molten pig-iron.

An experimental vessel to contain 7 cwts of molten pig-iron was set up in Bessemer's factory. Air pipes led into the bottom of the vessel, and when the air was turned on, huge flames and showers of sparks shot out of the mouth of the converter, followed by spurts of molten metal and slag. Bessemer and his workers could only retreat and hope for the best. They could not turn off the air because the air-valve had been placed too near to the converter. However, after ten minutes the eruption subsided and it was found that the iron was free of impurities.

The new process was widely adopted, and converters were built which could purify several tons of pig-iron in half-an-hour - an enormous improvement on previous methods. The Bessemer `blow', with flames shooting high into the air, is one of the most dramatic sights in steel manufacture.

Other methods followed, the Siemens `open hearth' furnaces were slower than the Bessemer converter but gave better control. “Electric arc' furnaces were introduced later.

Two metals, manganese and chromium, discovered in 1774, were to play an important role in steel manufacture. Small quantities of manganese in steel adds greatly to its strength. Chromium is used in the manufacture of stainless steel.

Task 1.

Phonetic Exercise

Practise after the speaker and learn to pronounce the words given below.

forward /'fo:w?d/; engineer / enji'ni?/; royal /'roj?l/; society /s?`sai?ti/;

patent /'peit?nt/; technology /tek'nol?ji/; experimental /eks peri'ment? l/; spurt /sp? :t/; subside / s? b'said/; manganese / m?ng?`ni:z/; chromium /'kroumj? m/.

Task 2.

Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the words and word- combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own.

( ); ; ; ; ; -; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; .

Exercise 2. Match the English words and word-combinations given below

with their Russian equivalents.

1. to produce steel 1.

2. to make a big step forward 2.

3. air pipes 3.

4. in various fields of technology 4.

5. to hope for the best 5.

6. to adopt widely 6.

7. to turn off 7.

8. the most dramatic sight 8.

9. electric arc furnace 9.

10. open hearth furnace 10. x

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions.

1. What differs pig-iron from steel? 2. Who made the revolution in steel industry? 3. What was the main idea of Bessemer's experiment? 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of open hearth furnaces over Bessemer's converter? 5. How can we increase the strength of steel? 6. What is chromium used for?

Exercise 4. In the text there are some verbs which in combination with

prepositions acquire another meaning :

to set up - ,

to turn on -

to turn off -

Such combinations are called verbal collocations. Translate the following verbal collocations into Russian and complete the sentences given below using them.

to set smth off; to set in; to set out; to turn someone down;

to turn smth in; to turn someone on; to turn out

1. Let's . . . early tomorrow. It'll take us long to get to Stratford. 2. We've had . . . his proposal. It'll be too expensive to make use of it. 3. His lectures . . . to be very interesting. 4. It's been very cold the last few days. I think the winter . . . already. 5. Rock music really . . . me. 6. Bill is a hard-working student. He . . . two essays every week. 7. He . . . to work on the project several days ago.

Exercise 5. Choose the word or phrase that best completes each sentence.

Explain your choice.

1. The . . . of steel at Robertsbridge began in 1565.

a) production b) output c) manufacture

2. The importance of Bessemer's discovery was that . . . pig iron was transformed into steel within some thirty minutes.

a) molten b) liquid c) hard

3. In the end of the 18th century . . . of metals improved greatly with the help of new methods.

a) quantity b) quality c) number

4. One of the properties of metals is their specific . . .

a) shining b) luster c) glitter

5. All metals except mercury are . . . substances.

a) hard b) tough c) heavy

6. Converters can . . . several tons of pig iron in a short period of time.

a) clean b) clear c) purify

7. Impurities must be removed before pig iron can be . . . into steel.

a) converted b) transformed c) made

8. Chromium was . . . in 1774.

a) opened b) found c) discovered

Exercise 6. Give a written translation of the following passage.

The technique of making steel had not fallen into oblivion. In Anglo-Saxon literature many references are made to steel and also to `steeling'. Conversion of soft wrought iron into steel by cementation continued to be practised. The technique seems to have been improved by the Danes locally to satisfy the demands of small economic units.

The conquering Normans were greatly impressed by the industrial efficiency they found in England. German skilled workers were accustomed to reside in England because of the high level the Anglo- Saxon had attained in metal - making. For example, knives made in England, were valued much in France during the Middle Ages.

Task 3.

Focus on Grammar

Expressing the Past

Different tenses are used to report past actions. The simple past tense is the most frequently used in scientific writing. It denotes an action, which took part a long time ago and is completed; or to express past habits.

The first man appeared about 1,5 million years ago.

When I was a child, I liked ice-cream.

The Past Continuous Tense is used:

a) to describe an activity in progress at a time in the past.

What were you doing yesterday at 5?

When she entered the room, he was speaking on the phone.

b) to express the future in the past.

He was in a hurry. He was leaving for London at 3 and he

did not want to be late.

The Past Perfect Tense is used to express an action that happened before a definite time in the past.

When I came he had already left for the station.

He had completed his work before the conference.

When using different tenses in the same sentence, different ideas can be expressed.

When we came she made some coffee .(first we came and then she

made the coffee)

When we came she was making some coffee. (she was in the process

of making coffee when we came)

When we came she had made some coffee. (the coffee was ready when

we came)

The Past Perfect Continuous is used when the action began before the time of speaking in the past and continued up to that time:

He was very tired because he had been working for three hours.

Exercise 1. Choose the correct past tense.

  1. Few inventions . . . (to make) such a tremendous difference to everyday life as the internal combustion engine. 2. In 1906 a well-known sportsman Charles Rolls . . . (to go) into partnership with Henry Royce, an engineer. Together they . . . (to build) the Rolls-Royce motor car. 3. I . . . (to work) hard on my project when suddenly I . . . (to hear) a door bell. 4. I couldn't recognize him, he . . . (to change) a lot. 5. Tom . . . (to look) badly yesterday, he . . . (to be) ill for a long time. 6. We needed money so we . . . (to sell) some of our things. 7. Another man-made satellite . . . (to go) just into orbit. 8. When the manufacture of wire, which . . . (to be) the principal object of the new enterprise stopped, production . . . (to be) limited to the manufacture of steel. 9. In spite of the frequent internal wars and Viking invasions which . . . (to earn) the Anglo-Saxon era the name of the Dark Ages in English history. definite economic progress . . . (to take) place in the same period. 10. As a boy Dr.Clark never . . . (to take) any interest in chemistry. 11. He . . . (to be) professor of theoretical physics at Leeds University already when I entered it. 12. The manufacture of steel at Robertsbridge . . . (to begin) early in December 1565. 13. While Mother . . . (to cook) dinner, we . . . (to clean) the living-room. 14. I saw her at the party. She . . . (to wear) a very nice dress, her eyes . . . (to shine). 15. Her eyes were red. I think she . . . (to cry). 16. The Chinese . . . (to invent) gun-powder. 17. When I (to open) the door I (to find) him under the sofa. He (to look for) the keys for a quarter of an hour.

Exercise 2. Translate into Russian. Comment on the use of the tenses.

1. Air pollution has become a major problem in our cities. 2. By 1957 Russia had launched the first sputnik. 3. Abraham Darby died in 1717 and his son, Abraham Darby II, took over his ironworks. 4. By law, all metal found in occupied countries belonged to Rome. 5. We have just briefly enumerated some of the features of iron. 6. By the time of the Great Exhibition of London in 1851, the metallurgical world had already experienced a great advance in technical progress. 7. In recent years there has been a great increase in the application of this method. 8. The last hundred years has seen many innovations in the ancient art of casting. 9. I'm afraid I haven't seen you for a long time. 10. She was waiting for me when I arrived. 11. When I came in they were discussing the advantages of new technology.

Exercise 3. Correct the sentences in which the tenses are misused.

  1. They completed all the preparations by five o'clock.

  2. Please, tell me where you were going to yesterday at 3 o'clock..

  3. I had written to you several days ago. I wanted to know more about the entrance exams.

  4. She had returned from Chicago yesterday.

  5. When she came back she found out that somebody had broken the front door. 6. What did you do at this time yesterday? I was skating .

7. Have you been waiting for me for a long time? Yes, I have waited for you since 2 o'clock.

8. I returned home, shook the water off my raincoat and hang it up.

9. Everything had been ready by 2. So when I came the hostess was having a rest before the guests arrived.

10. He found the place even more beautiful than he expected.

11. We could not start the experiment before we had obtained the necessary data..

12. The use of metals had marked one of the greatest stages in the evolution of man.

13. At the same time they were discussing the results of the experiment.

14. The treatment of steel is now an elaborate science.

15. The use of vacuum methods in metallurgy considerably increased since the mid-fifties.

Text 2

Pre - reading task

1. What do you know about London?

2. Look through the text and say what new facts about London you have

known from it.

London

“The city that has everything” probably sums up London's appeal best of all. It is a tale of two cities: one began as a Roman settlement over 2000 years ago and formed the basis of the City of London - the business heart of the great capital. The other grew up around the abbey which Edward the Confessor founded in 1050: it became the centre of government known as Westminster. Though both these cities have grown and prospered and have lived together for 1000 years they have never made up their minds to become legally married.

The City of London maintains its independence in many ways. For instance, before the Queen may enter the city she must stop at Temple Bar and ask permission of the Lord Mayor of London who, symbolically, surrends the sword of State to her. It is only a formality but it emphasizes the City's status. It is also a good example of British devotion to their traditions.

The Houses of Parliament make a beautiful view across the Thames. They were built between 1840 and 1860 to replace those destroyed in a disastrous fire in 1834. The Victoria Tower is on the left, the Clock Tower (popularly known as Big Ben) is on the right. Westminster Hall, adjacent to the Houses of Parliament, is the only remaining building of the Palace of Westminster. Here King Charles I was sentenced to death.

The City's greatest monument is St.Paul's Cathedral built by Sir Christopher Wren in 17 - 18 centuries. It took him about 35 years to complete his work. The predecessor of the Cathedral was destroyed in the Fire of London (1666). Wren's tomb in the crypt bears the famous inscription:” Reader, if you would seek his monument, look around you.”

The Tower of London does not oficially belong to the City, though it stood there for almost 900 years. The White Tower which is part of the present Tower of London, is the earliest surviving building in the City.

Quite an unexpected feature of London is the number, variety and the beauty of the parks. St.James Park was laid out by John Nash as a front garden for Buckingham Palace, but it is open for everyone. Hyde Park is less of a private garden and more of an open space. It is famous for the Serpentine - a beautiful pond, and Speaker's Corner where anybody can make a speech at weekends. Kensington Gardens adjoins Hyde Park. In both these parks one can find a place where the birds' singing is the only sound to be heard.

Of course the incredible collection of art treasures and historical objects to be found in the city is the main London attraction. Everybody knows about the National Gallery situated in the north of Trafalgar Square which exhibits all schools of European painting from the 13th to the 19th centuries. The National Portrait Gallery adjoins the National Gallery and exhibits the portraits of British monarchs, statesmen, heroes and other well-known people. The British Museum has a priceless collection of art objects from the Orient. The famous British Museum Library has a unique collection of rare books and manuscripts. The Tate Gallery is the National gallery of British art. It was given to the nation by a rich sugar merchant Sir Henry Tate. Another donation to the people of Great Britain was made by Sir Richard Wallace's widow in 1897. It contains a fine display of pottery, carved wooden sculptures, miniatures and paintings.

London was probably best characterized by Dr. Johnson who said, “When a man is tired of London he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford.”

Task 2

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

  1. London was founded by the Normans about 1000 years ago.

  2. The City is the commercial heart of London and it is an autonomous district.

  3. The Houses of Parliament were burnt down in the fire of 1834.

  4. St.Paul's Cathedral wasn't touched by the Fire of London.

  5. One cannot say that London is a green city.

  6. The National Portrait Gallery is situated in Chelsea and exhibits the portraits of many well-known British people as well as foreigners.

Exercise 2. From the choices given choose one word or phrase which

could be substituted for the underlined word or phrase

without changing its meaning.

1. Moscow grew up around the Kremlin.

a) developed b) enlarged

2. The famous Coventry Cathedral was badly destroyed during World

War II.

a) damaged b) ruined

3. The British Museum has an incredible collection of old books and manuscripts.

a) wonderful b) true

4. The Tretyakov Art Gallery contains a unique collection of Russian painting.

a)comprises b) constitutes

5. The variety of museums make London a real attraction for tourists.

a) kind b) diversity

6. In our days all parks of London are opened to everybody.

a) recently b) nowadays

7. The space of the Kew Gardens is huge.

a) accomodation b) area

Exercise 3. Using additional material make up a report on some

places of interest of London.

Exercise 4. Arrange the jumbled text into the right order.

Lincoln

1. An important building programme was undertaken shortly after the Norman Conquest (1066). The famous Lincoln Cathedral and the Castle were built in 1068 - 1072. The city still has several fine examples of Norman buildings, including the famous Jew's House in Steep Hill, one of Britain's best known 12th-century houses.

2. Lincoln is a city of great historical interest and importance. Even before the Romans came to Lincoln and set up a military garrison in AD 48 the site of the city was occupied and known as Lindon - hill fort by the pool.

3. During the Middle Ages Lincoln's prosperity was based on the wool trade. The development of Lincoln as an industrial centre began in the mid-nineteenth century. The local products are many and varied and include excavators, cranes and drills, diesel engines for all applications, turbines, boilers and pumping equipment, electronic components, etc.

4. The Romans made Lincoln one of the finest cities in Britain. Their elaborate stone-built sewerage system was unique. After the Romans left, the Anglo-Saxons robbed their buildings, and the development of the city started only with the Viking invasion in the 8the century when Lincoln became an important trading centre.

Exercise 5. Listen to the lecture on London Art Galleries and

answer the questions.

Oral Practice

Asking the way

Patterns

Questions Answers

1. Excuse me, can you tell me the 1. Certainly, . . .

way to . . .?

2. Sorry, can you tell me how 2. Sure, . . .

to get to . . .?

3. Excuse me, can you tell me 3. With pleasure/ Yes, of course.

where . . . is?

4. Sorry, I'm afraid, I've lost 4. - Sorry, I don't know.

my way. Can/Could you - I have no idea, I'm afraid.

help me? I need to get to . . . - I'm a stranger here myself.

Directions

Turn left/right

Go/Walk straight on

Take the first/second/etc. road on the left/right

Take the first/second/etc. turning on the left/right

Turn right/left after the zebra crossing

Go over the bridge

Go past the post office/bank/cinema

Prepositions

?

above ? near ? ?

between ? ? ? next to ? ?

?

among ? ? ? opposite |? ? |

?

in front of ?

?

Exercise 1. Learn the dialogues by heart, and make up similar

dialogues of your own, using the patterns.

I.

A. - Excuse me, could you help me?

B. - Yes, of course. What is it?

A. - I want to catch a 17 bus and I'm trying to find the bus stop.

B. - Go straight on and turn left after the zebra crossing. The bus

stop is just at the corner.

II.

A. - Sorry, can you tell me how to get to Oxford Street?

B. - Certainly, you'd better walk there because the traffic is very

heavy. Take the first turning on the right. Go past the Centre

Point and turn left. Oxford Street is just over there. It'll take

you about 10 minutes to get there.

III.

A. - Excuse me, can you tell me where the nearest post office is?

B. - I have no idea. I'm afraid. I'm a stranger here myself.

Exercise 2. How would you say what you want in these situations?

1. You are in the country and your car breaks down. You must find a telephone. Someone walks past . . .

2. Sylvia is going to a friend's house. The friend told her to catch a 10 bus, but she doesn't know where the bus stop is. She decides to ask someone.

3. You are a stranger in London and you have lost your way to the British Museum.

Exercise 3. Give directions from A to B in these pictures:

1. 2.

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A

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B Bank

0x08 graphic
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0x08 graphic
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A Post Office

0x08 graphic
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B

3. 4.

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0x08 graphic
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0x08 graphic
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B

0x08 graphic
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A Bank Post

0x08 graphic
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=

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Pub

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B

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school

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river

A

Unit 3

Text 1

Steel Production in Sheffield

Today, Sheffield is one of the main sources of the world's best steel, the mainspring for the mightiest industries of mankind.

Yet, as a steelmaking centre, Sheffield built its reputation only about a century and a half ago. The location of the industry in the lower valley of the Don owed something at that time to the older established edge tool crafts, based originally on imported steel into an area with fuel and water power available, but the main advantage of South Yorkshire was the abundant supply of coal and access to Baltic transport.

The name of the city has become synonymous with quality, craftsmanship and traditional skills. Skills that have become secrets handed down from father to son, that have created the city's proud boast that the words `Sheffield,England' on any product are a certain guarantee of quality.

The modern steel industry on which the city's fame partly rests, only really began with the invention of the crucible process by Benjamin Huntsman, who settled in Handsworth about 1740. His steel was of unequalled uniformity of quality and its use revolutionised the making of tools.

By 1835 Sheffield was already established as the centre of tool-steel manufacture in Britain. Bessemer's invention of his converter steelmaking, first practised in Sheffield and bringing the era of bulk steels, put Sheffield further ahead. Sheffield chose, however, to develop on the lines of the manufacture of alloy and special steels for special purposes and with distinct characteristics. There are numerous types of steel made but they can mainly be divided into a few wide groups: low and medium carbon steels: high carbon and high quality alloy tool steels; special alloy constructional and die steels; stainless and heat-resisting steels, low steels from which permanent magnets for the electrical industries are made (including alloys which are not true steels but made principally in Sheffield by the same process).

Sheffield, the initiator, is in fact the place where the chief discoveries respecting steel and its wonderful powers and possibilities have been made by means of trial and error. Here in 1859 Robert Forester Mushet, made possible the production of a mild all-purpose steel in large quantities. A further process was also introduced, the Siemens-Martin process. In his open-hearth process heat was saved and intensified by using for the blast hot air from the furnace instead of cold. This enabled manufacturers to use ore with a smaller percentage of carbon and a higher percentage of impurities such as phosphorus, as the blast cleared away the harmful elements more thoroughly. Both of these improvements enormously cheapened the production of the average steels in ordinary use.

The industrial legacies provided by these early steelfounders created a sound basis for development. The Siemens open hearth furnace, the converter process invented by Alexandre Tropenas, the electric arc furnace, the high-frequency induction furnace have taken their places in due course. Low-frequency induction melting has since been introduced into the city and high-frequency induction heating is helping heat-treatment and other processes in the manufacture of Sheffield's steels and steel products.

Task 1.

Phonetic Exercise

Practise after the speaker and learn to pronounce the words given below.

source /so:s/; mightiest /'maitiist/; area / ??ri /; synonymous /si'nonim?s/;

crucible /'kru:sibl/; unequalled / /\ n'i:kw? ld/; uniformity / ju:ni'fo:miti/;

revolutionised / rev?`lu:? ?naizd/; percentage /p? `sentij /; phosphorus /'fosf?r?s/; legacy /'leg?si/; frequency /'fri:kw?nsi/.

Task 2.

Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the following words and

word-combinations given below. Use them in the sentences

of your own.

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; .

Exercise 2. Match the English words and word-combinations given below

with their Russian equivalents.

1. a steelmaking centre 1.

2. abundant supply 2.

3. water power 3.

4. crucible steel 4.

5. uniformity of quality 5.

6. a certain guarantee of quality 6.

7. bulk steel 7.

8. die steel 8.

9. permanent magnet 9. ()

10. by means of trial and error 10.

11. mild steel 11.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions.

1. Why did Sheffield become a steelmaking centre? 2. When did the modern steel industry begin? 3. What types of steel were produced in Sheffield? 4. Which processes of steel-making were first introduced in Sheffield? 5. How can the Siemens-Martin process be described?

Exercise 4. Choose the word or phrase that best completes each

sentence.

1. Such men as Bessemer, Siemens and Mushet were . . . the steel material.

a) improving b) discovering c) introducing

2. Only comparatively small . . . of the steel could be melted at one time in the first crucibles.

a) numbers b) quantities c) amounts

3. Bessemer's converter was the first major . . . after Huntsman's crucible.

a) discovery b) invention c) innovation

4. South Yorkshire used to give the . . . supply of coal.

a) great b) rich c) abundant

5. Bessemer's process helped to burn . . . all the carbon.

a) out b) in c) up

6. South Wales - . . . near the sea was convenient for the importation of Spanish ore.

a) located b) present c) accomodated

7. Almost all important discoveries were made by means of trial and . . .

a) mistakes b) fault c) error

Exercise 5. Word-building: A compound noun is a combination of two or more nouns.

They are frequently used in scientific writing. Here are some

examples of compound words. Find more compound words

in the text. Work out the rule of their formation and use

them in the sentences of your own. Pay attention to their

meaning.

1. silver - ; silver-coloured - ;

silversmith - ; silver-work -

2. water - ; water-cooler - ; water-engine -

; waterfall - .

Exercise 6. Change each of these phrases into a compound noun.

  1. reaction of chemicals 5. pressure of gas

  2. pump for fuel 6. density of gas

  3. processor of words 7. compression of air

  4. rain that contains acid 8. pollution of the air

Exercise 7. More about word-building. A knowledge of prefixes and their meanings can help you to enlarge your vocabulary. Once you know what a particular prefix means, you have a clue to the meaning of every word beginning with that prefix. English prefixes come mainly from Old English (Anglo-Saxon), Latin and Ancient Greek.

1. fore- = before, beforehand, front

For example: foreword = preface, introduction (, )

foremost = standing at the front; most advanced; leading; chief ( , , )

foresight = power of seeing beforehand what is going to happen (, )

2. out- = beyond; more than; better than

For example: outlast = to last longer than (, , …)

outrun = to run faster than (, )

outlook = prospect for the future (; ; )

  1. over- = too, excessively

For example: oversupply = a great supply ( ; )

overconfident = too confident of oneself ()

overestimate = to make too high an estimate (rough calculation) of the worth or size of smb, smth ( -, -)

Translate at sight:

  1. Joe overestimated the capacity of the new equipment. 2. The output of the factory is slowly increasing. 3.Yesterday I mislaid my bag and it took me about an hour to find it.

  1. Harry's bad test overshadowed his good work during the last month. 5.We have a shortage of good engineers but an oversupply of unskilled workers. 6.An overdose of this medicine can be dangerous. 7. Sherlock Holmes managed to outwit the cleverest criminals.

Exercise 8. Give a written translation of the following passage.

THE BLAST FURNACE

Iron is extracted from iron ore in blast furnaces. The biggest are 60m (200ft) high, produce 10,000 tonnes of iron a day, and work non-stop for 10 years. The furnace gets its name from the blast of hot air that heats up the raw materials. These are iron ore, limestone, and coke (a form of carbon). As carbon is more reactive that iron, it grabs the oxygen from the iron ore, leaving iron metal behind.

Limestone is included in the furnace because it mizes and combines with sand, clay, and stones in the ore. They form a waste material, called slag, which floats on top of the molten metal.

The chemical reactions begin when hot air is blasted into the furnace. As the coke burns, the carbon in it gets enough energy to react with oxygen from the air to form first carbon dioxide and then carbon monoxide. The carbon monoxide takes oxygen atoms from the iron oxide to leave carbon dioxide and iron metal. Temperature inside the furnace reaches 1,900oC, melting the iron which sinks to the bottom.

Task 3.

Focus on Grammar

Expressing the Future

1. will is an auxiliary of the future in simply predicting a future event.

They will go to the country tomorrow.

2. The Present Continuous is used to express an arrangement, usually for the near future.

I'm going to the cinema tonight.

They are coming to see us tomorrow morning.

3. The Future Continuous expresses an activity that will be in progress around some particular time in the future.

Don't phone him tomorrow. He will be preparing for the seminar.

Tomorrow at this time we'll be crossing the English Channel.

4. The Future Perfect expresses an action which will have finished before a definite time in the future.

I'll have done this task by 4 o'clock.

Mother will have made the lunch by the time they come.

5. The Future Tenses are not used in the subordinate clauses of time and condition (if, when, before, after).

I'll go there after I finish this work.

If he invites her, I won't go to his party.

Exercise 1. Match a future form in box A with its definition in box B

A B

1. We'll have finished breakfast by 1. an arrangement

the time you come. 2. an activity which will be in

2. I am meeting her at 2 o'clock in progress at a certain time

Picadilly Circus. 3. a planned action

3. At 3 o'clock tomorrow we'll be 4. a simple prediction

having a nice time abroad. 5. an action that will be finished

4. I'll give you my jacket in case you before a definite time

need it.

5. You'll be very happy with your 6. a spontaneous intention

husband, I am sure. 7. an action that will happen in the

6. I am going to study English in Britain. natural course of events

7. My plane leaves at 10 on Thursday.

Exercise 2. Put the verb in brackets in a suitable future form.

1. I . . . (to go) to Germany next summer. 2. We have decided we . . . (to do) something different this weekend. Usually we go to the country. 3. If you . . . (to wake up) me tomorrow, I . . . (to go) there with you. 4. I . . . (to meet) Emma at three. She . . . (to join) us for dinner. 5. We . . . (to complete) the project by the end of the year. 6. When you . . . (to return), he . . . (to be) probably there already. 7. At 3 o'clock tomorrow he . . . (to present) his paper at the conference. 8. Before the end of the holiday he . . . (to spend) all his money. 10. Come at 7 o'clock. I'm sure Tom . . . (to come) by that time. 11. At four o'clock tomorrow I . . . (to play) tennis. 12. When Jill comes back everybody . . . (to be fast asleep). 13. What …you (do) when I come. 14. The train …(to leave) by the time we come to the station.

Exercise 3. Read a situation and then write a question in a future form.

Example: It is nice outside. You want to go for a walk.

Question: Shall we go for a walk?

1. You and your friend are late for a party and you suggest to take a taxi. You say . . .

2. You want to borrow a dictionary from your friend and want to know if he will be using it tonight. You say . . .

3. You want to visit your friend tomorrow at 5 o'clock but you don't know if he'll be busy. You say . . .

4. You want to know if your friend will have finished the work by tomorrow. You say ...

Text 2.

Pre-reading task.

  1. What do you already know about the system of higher education in Great Britain?

  2. Look through the text and find the answers to the folloing questions:

  1. Where can higher education be obtained from in Great Britain?

  2. Do the majority of young people proceed to higher education in Great Britain?

  3. Name the three types of British universities.

  4. What degree is usually taken in final examinations after the first three years of study?

  5. What can you say about the teaching system in British universities?

  6. Why is adult education so important?

  7. Where can further education be obtained from?

Higher education in Great Britain can be obtained from a university, a college (or institute) of higher education or at alternative college. What usually identifies most of these institutions is that a student, after a prescribed period of study and after passing his examinations will receive a degree and become a graduate of his institution. However, only a small percentage of the age group in Britain proceeds to higher education, in contrast to the higher rates in many major industrial nations.

The universities

There were twenty-three British universities in 1960. After a period of expansion in the 1960s, there are now forty-six, with thirty-five in England, eight in Scotland, two in Northern Ireland, and one in Wales. They can be broadly classified into three types. The ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge (composed of their many colleges) date from the twelfth century, but until the nineteenth century they were virtually the only English universities and offered no place to women. However, old universities had been founded in Scotland, such as St.Andrews (1411), Glasgow (1450), Aberdeen (1494), and Edinburgh (1583). The second group comprises the `redbrick' or civic universities such as London, Leeds, Liverpool, and Manchester, which were mainly created between 1820 and 1930. The third group consists of the new universities founded after the Second World War, and later in the 1960s. Many of the latter, like Sussex and East Anglia, are set in rural countryside.

Only about 10 per cent of British students leave university without finishing their courses. The successful majority aim for a good degree in order to obtain a good job, or to continue in higher education by doing research (master's degrees and doctorates). The bachelor's degree (Bachelor of Arts or Science, BA or BSc) is usually taken in final examinations at the end of the third year of study, although degree courses do vary in length in different subjects. For example, engineering is often 4 years while medicine and architecture are usually 7 years. The final degree is divided into first-, upper-second, lower-second, third-class honours, and pass.

Teaching is mainly by the lecture system, followed up by tutorials (small groups) and seminars. Many university students may live on campus in university accomodation, while others may choose to live in rented property outside the university. Few British students choose universities near their parents' homes.

Other ways to obtain technical education

Polytechnics existed for some time in Britain in one form or another. But most of the recent institutions were created in the 1960s. The Polytechnics were initially seen as the “people's universities”, and were designed for specific tasks. But they have developed to such an extent that they are now equivalent to universities in many ways. All have higher degrees and research capacity, and since 1991 the Government has decreed that they should all be granted university status.

Today, the former polytechnics have a wide range of arts and science courses at both degree and sub-degree level. Students may study for a degree or a diploma in a professional skill and may be on a full-time or part-time course.

Further and Adult Education

An important aspect of British education is the provision of further and adult education, whether by voluntary bodies, trade unions, or state institutions. The present organizations originated to some degree in the thirst for knowledge which was felt by working-class people in the nineteenth- and early twentieth-century, particularly after the arrival of state education and mass literacy. Today, local authorities provide such educational opportunities in colleges of further education, technical colleges, and colleges of commerce. These institutions offer a considerable selection of subjects at basic levels for a wide range of part-time and full-time students. Many of these institutions also provide opportunities to students to take university entrance examinations.

Adult education is provided by these colleges, the universities, the Workers' Educational Association (WEA), evening institutes, and local societies and clubs. There has been a recent expansion of continuing-education projects, as well as programmes specifically designed for adult employment purposes. Adult courses may be vocational (relating to a person's job or search for a job) or recreational (for pleasure), and cover a wide range of activities.

There are several million part-time students at these various institutions, and their ages range from 16 to 80 and beyond.

Task 2.

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1. The majority of youngsters in Great Britain proceed to higher education.

2. Oxford and Cambridge are the only ancient universities in Britain.

3. Very few of British students leave university without finishing their courses.

4. The Bachelor's degree is usually taken at the end of the fifth year.

5. University education is the only way to obtain technical education.

6. There are many colleges of further education in Britain.

7. Adult education has no age limit and enjoys high popularity in Britain.

Exercise 2. Enlarge on the following:

Bachelor of Arts (BA); Bachelor of Science (BSc); Master of Science;

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD); first-class honours; a `red-brick' university;

evening institute; a part-time student.

Exercise 3. Arrange the jumbled text given below

Student Grants

1. The Conservative government has tried to replace grants with a loan system. This means that students would have to finance their own higher education in much the same way as students in many European countries and in the USA.

2. Most students who gain a place at a recognized institution of higher education are awarded

a financial grant from their local authorities.

3. This is supposed to be enough to cover most of the fees and living expenses of a course during term time. But the size of the grant depends upon parental income (means test). This means that some students with rich parents may receive no grant, while others with less rich parents will be given a partial grant.

4. It seems likely that a modified loan scheme may be introduced in the near future by the government. But there is a strong feeling in Britain that higher education should be free for those who are qualified to take advantage of it.

5. The grant is reduced progressively at present as parental income passes 10,000 pounds. After this level, the parents are supposed to make a contribution to their children's grants. But almost 50 per cent do not make any contribution. Many students who receive a full grant complain that it is not enough to cover all expenses, and the grant has declined in real terms since the 1960s.

Exercise 4. Translate the following proverbs and quotations into

Russian. Explain them.

They know enough who know how to learn. (Henry Adams)

An investment to knowledge pays the best interest. (Benjamin Franklin)

Happy is he that is happy in his children.

There is no finer investment for any community than putting milk into babies. (W. Churchill)

To know is nothing at all, to imagine is everything. (Anatole France)

A little learning is a dangerous thing. (A.Pope)

Will and intellect are one and the same thing. (B.Spinoza)

Oral Practice

Describing People's Appearance

Patterns

What does he look like? - ?

General appearance:

tall, short, medium-height; fat, plump, thin, slim, well-built;

beautiful, nice, plain, attractive, good-looking, pretty, handsome.

Hair:

blonde, brown, black, red, ginger, white, grey, salt-and-pepper, fair;

straight, wavy, curly, short (-cut), long, bold (boldish),

moustache, beard.

Eyes:

black, grey, hazel, brown, blue, green, wide, slantish

Nose:

large, small, thin and long, up-turned, short, hawked.

Chin:

clean-shaven, pointed, dimpled, square

Exercise 1. Learn the dialogues by heart. Make dialogues of your own

using the patterns.

I

Ben: Hello, Peter. How are you?

Susan: Thanks, fine. And you?

Ben: Thanks, fine too. Have you seen Kate?

Susan: Kate? I think, I don't know her.

Ben: You do. Do you remember that attractive girl at Peter's party?

Susan: There were many attractive girls there. What does she look like?

Ben: She is slim and she's got hazel eyes and long dark hair.

Susan: Oh, yes, now I remember her. I haven't seen her since that party.

II

Peter: Have you taken after your mother or after your father, Kate?

Kate: After both of them. I've got wavy fair hair like my mother's and

a long thin nose like my father's.

Peter: Is your father tall?

Kate: Just average.

Peter: Has he got a beard or a moustache?

Kate: Neither of them.

Exercise 2. Play a game. One person thinks of a member of the class.

The rest of the group ask questions to guess who it is.

Exercise 3. One student describes a person and the rest of the class try

to draw a picture of this person.

Unit 4

Text 1

The British Steel Industry Today

Most of the early developments in iron and steel production originated in Britain, the world's eighth largest steel-production nation in 1979. The Iron and Steel Act 1967 brought together into public ownership 14 major companies and created the British Steel Corporation (BSC). In recent years BSC has produced about 82 per cent of Britain's crude steel and is the largest steel undertaking in Western Europe. As a result of the widespread industrial recession, employment in the steel industry has been declining, both in Britain and in other countries.

The remaining (private sector) companies are represented by the British Independent Steel Producers' Association whose members employ some 60,000 people and account for over a third of the value of the industry's turnover. The private sector is particularly strong in the manufacture of alloy and stainless steels and of finished products for the engineering industry. The main steel producing areas are Yorkshire and Humberside (32 per cent of crude steel output in 1979), Wales (32 per cent), the Northern region (15 per cent), Scotland (8 per cent) and the West Midlands (5 per cent).

About 75 per cent of British steel producers' deliveries of finished steel products are used by home industry and the remainder for direct export, the major markets for which are the rest of the European Community and the United States. A large part of the steel used by industry in Britain is also subsequently exported as part of other finished products.

The castings industry plays an important role in meeting the needs of manufacturers for essential components for products sold both in Britain and abroad. Its main customers are the vehicle, mechanical engineering, building and construction industries. The British Cast Iron Research Association, the Steel Casting Research and Trade Association conduct much of the research and development in the industry.

Britain's non-ferrous metal processing and fabricating industry is one of the largest in Europe. Its major products are aluminium (both virgin and secondary metal), secondary and refined copper, lead and primary zinc. Tin mining in Cornwall supplies about 25 per cent of Britain's tin requirements but otherwise British metal smelting and refining industries are based on imported ores. Britain is also a major producer of the newer specialised metals including uranium, zirconium and beryllium for the nuclear energy industry, niobium for aircraft production and selenium, silicon, germanium and tantalum for electronic apparatus. Titanium and titanium alloys are also produced and used in aircraft production, power generation and North Sea oil production, where their lightness, resistance to stress, flexibility and resistance to oxidisation are especially valued. Nearly half the industry is situated in the Midlands. Other centres include south Wales, London, Tyneside and Avonmouth, where a zinc smelter of some 100,000 tonnes capacity operates. Three large-scale aluminium smelters provide 85 per cent of Britain's requirements for primary aluminium. The large non-ferrous metals fabricating industry uses large quantities of imported refined metals such as copper, lead, zinc and aluminium. A wide range of semi-manufactures is produced in these metals and their alloys, and, particularly in aluminium, firms are engaged in smelting, casting and fabrication by rolling, extrusion and drawing; advanced techniques of powder metallurgy and pressure die-casting are also employed. In recent years considerable progress has been made in the development of `superplastic' alloys, which are more ductile and elastic than conventional alloys.

Scientific and technological research for the industry is conducted by the Warren Spring Laboratory of the Department of Industry and by the British Non-Ferrous (BNF) Metals Technology Centre.

Task 1.

Phonetic Exercise

Practise after the speaker and learn to pronounce the words given below :

originated /?`rijineitid/; per cent / p? `sent/; crude /kru:d/; brought /bro:t/; major /'meij?/; recession /ri'se? n/; product /'prod? kt/; produce /pr? `dju:s/; production

/pr?`d/\k ?n/; subsequently /'s/\bsikw?ntli/; manufacturer / m?nju `fkt??r?/; component /k?m'poun?nt/; vehicle /'vi: ikl/; aluminium /?lju'minj?m/; uranium /ju?`reinj?m/; zirconium /z?:'kounj?m/; berillium /b?:'rilj?m/; niobium /nai?`bj?m/; silicon /'silik?n/; germanium /j?:'meini? m/.

Task 2.

Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the words and word- combinations

given below. Use them in the sentences of your own.

; ; ; ; ; ( ); ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; 100 ; ; ; ; ; .

Exercise 2. Match the English words and word-combinations

given below with their Russian equivalents.

1. to be represented 1.

2. alloy 2.

3. stainless steel 3. ()

4.deliveries of finished steel products 4.

5.to play an important role/part in 5.

6. to meet the needs of manufac- 6.

tureres

7. essential components 7.

8. virgin metal 8.

9. secondary metal 9. ()

10. resistance to oxidation 10.

11. smelting industry 11.

12. refining industry 12.

13. processing industry 13.

14. superelastic alloys 14.

15. conventional alloys 15.

16. semi-manufacture 16.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions.

1. What was the purpose of the Iron and Steel Act? 2. What organization represents the private sector in British metallurgy? 3. Where are the finished products of steel industry used? 4. Why is the castings industry so important? 5. Does non-ferrous metal processing play an important part in British metallurgy?

Exercise 4. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1. The private sector of British metallurgy is not particularly strong.

2. Britain uses all its steel producers deliveries of finished steel products only for the needs of home industry.

3. The castings industry is underdeveloped in Great Britain.

4. Britain's non-ferrous metal processing and fabricating industry is one of the largest in Europe.

5. Nearly half of the industry is situated in the Midlands.

6. Britain does not produce the newer specialised metals (uranium, beryllium, etc.)

Exercise 5. Circle the letter of the answer that best matches the

meaning of the underlined word.

1. The Iron and Steel Act 1967 brought together into public ownership 14 major steel companies.

a) united b) desintegrated

2. The major steel producing areas in England are Yorkshire and Humberside.

a) minor b) main

3. This institute conducts much of the research in the industry.

a) fulfils b) carries out

4. All these qualities are highly valued.

a) appreciated b) demanded

5. About 75 per cent of steel products are used by home industry.

a) domestic b) foreign

6. The private sector is very strong in the manufacture of stainless steel.

a) processing b) production

7. Advanced techniques are highly employed in modern industry.

a) used b) applied

8. I think this is the most advanced method in language-learning.

a) modern b) progressive

Exercise 6. Give a written translation of the following passage.

The output of non-ferrous metals and their alloys in 1993 included primary and secondary (recycled) aluminium and copper, as well as aluminium and copper and copper alloy semi-manufactures. The production of metal relies mainly on imported ores and recycled material of both domestic and overseas origin.

Britain is a major producer of specialised alloys for high-technology requirements in the aerospace, electronic, petrochemical, nuclear and other fuel industries. Aluminium, lithium, developed by British Alcan Aluminium, is ideal for use in aircraft, being lighter, stronger and more rigid than normal aluminium.

There is also an important sector producing copper and copper alloy semi-manufactures for use in a wide variety of products like electric wire and cable; tube and fittings for plumping and valves; components for the engineering and transport industries.

Exercise 7. Phrasal verb GIVE

Match each of the collocations with the right description

1. give in 1. become exhausted, collapse

2. give out 2. submit, surrender

3. give up 3. pass

4. give-and-take 4. cease from trying

5. give over 5. to receive smb coldly

6. give away 6. to exchange on equal or fair terms

7. to give smb a hand 7. to say `good morning','good afternoon'

8. to give smb the cold shoulder 8. present; miss an opportunity

9. to give on the nail 9. to pay at once

10.to give the time of the day 10. to help smb

Exercise 8. Paraphrase the underlined collocations with the verb `give'

by those given at the end.

1. The ice gave way and we nearly went through the water.

2. `Can you give me a lift to Picadilly Circus?' I asked.

3. We must give ground, the enemy is too close to us.

4. He has given himself up to music.

5. At last she decided to give her hand to Oliver.

6. Don't give way to despair.

7. How much did you give for that coat?

8. Please, give me back the book you borrowed from me.

return; drive; break; devote; marry; pay; retreat; be overcome by.

Task 3.

Focus on Grammar

Modal Verbs Expressing Ability and Permission

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

Present can can not can he

is able to is not able to is he able to

may may not may he

is allowed is not allowed is he allowed

is permitted is not permitted is he permitted

Past could could not could he

was able to was not able to was he able to

was allowed was not allowed was he allowed

was permitted was not permitted was he permitted

Future he will be able to will not be able to will he be able to

he will be allowed will not be allowed will he be allowed

he will be permitted will not be permitted will he be permitted

Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate modal verb. Give more than one variant if possible.

1. I . . . him to use my notes to prepare for the seminar. 2. . . . the students choose what they wanted to study? 3. You . . . keep the book for a month. After that you . . . return it to the library. 4. . . . you type? I . . . type, but I know a very good typist who will do this work for us. 5. . . . you lend me 5 quid. I'll pay you back tomorrow morning. 6. Since the accident I . . . to drive a car. 7. He read the letter but he . . . to understand it. 8. . . . I leave my bag with you? No, you . . .. I am leaving now. 9. I had the right visa so they . . . me to cross the border. 10. Who . . . answer my questions? 11. Do not leave for tomorrow what you . . . do today. 12. King Philip of France was not a good fighter and he . . . take part in the Crusades. 13. In Trafalgar Square you . . . see two beautiful fountains. 14. With the help of this guide book you . . . to see the most important London sights. 15. Taking a trip down the River Thames to the Tower of London you . . . get a glimpse of six London bridges. 16. . . . you tell us about your trip to London?

Exercise 2. You are a guest at your friend's home. What do you say in these situations:

1. You want another cup of tea.

2. You want to phone home.

3. You want to smoke.

4. You want to take a bath.

5. You want to borrow a towel.

6. You want an evening newspaper.

7. You want to watch TV.

8. You want your friend to wake you up next morning.

Text 2

Pre - reading Task

Scan the following passage in three minutes and find information

about the following:

a) the aim of Imperial College;

b) the structure of Imperial College;

c) the fields of work;

d) research programmes of Department of Materials;

e) links with the humanities.

Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine

Imperial College is located in London. It was established in 1907 by Royal Charter `to give the highest specialised instruction, and to provide the fullest equipment for the most advanced training and research in various branches of science, especially in its application to industry.' The College is part of the University of London which is the largest university in the country for full-time students and has many thousands part-time.

The College itself is a federation of four closely linked colleges: the Royal College of Science, the Royal School of Mines, the City and Guilds College and St.Mary `s Medical School. All these colleges are working in the broad fields of the physical sciences, the life sciences, the earth sciences, mining, metallurgy and allied subjects, the main branches of engineering, including computing, and medicine.

The reputation of the staff is high. There are Noble Prize winners, Fellows of the Royal Society and Fellows of the Fellowship of Engineering among them.

Imperial College has strong links with both industry and government. Visiting professors and lecturers, industry and government establishments make an important contribution to the more specialized teaching at the College. Industry also provides the College with financial support for certain academic posts, advanced courses, bursaries and scholarships.

There are many departments which provide various study and research programmes for students working for higher degrees (MPhil, MSc or PhD) or on the post-doctoral level. For example, Department of Materials has extensive facilities for the processing and examination of materials. The topics include the following: semiconductors and devices, silicate melts, slags and ashes; metal matrix composites; microstructure and property relationships in alloys; development of new alloys; corrosion and protection, etc. Science and Technology Studies (STS) at Imperial examines the culture of modern science and technology from the perspective of the humanities. Teaching and research emphasise the history, communications and public understanding of science and technology from the origins of the Industrial Revolution to the present.

Students' life at Imperial College is very interesting. There is a wide range of athletic, social and recreational clubs. All social, cultural and athletic needs of students are provided by the Imperial College Student Union.

(Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, 1993)

Task 2.

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. The College is part of the University of London.

2. Imperial College has strong links with industry.

3. Industry doesn't provide the College with financial support.

4. Imperial College doesn't provide study programmes for applied sciences.

5. The humanities do not play an important part in the College curriculum.

6. Visiting professors from industry establishments often give lectures at Imperial College.

Exercise 2. Which of the two answers best matches the meaning of the

underlined word in the following sentences?

1.Imperial College is located in London.

a) existed b) situated

2. It gives instruction in the field of natural sciences.

a) education b) knowledge

3. Training of highly-qualified specialists is very important for national industry.

a) schooling b) preparation

4. Newton computed the weights of the planets.

a) measured b) calculated

5. There is a wide range of various clubs at Imperial College.

a) number b) scope

6. The stars are too numerous to be counted.

a) large b) abundant

7. This college is famous for the most advanced training.

a) progressive b) proceeded

8. Diamonds are expensive partly because they are so rare.

a) abundant b) scarce

Exercise 3. Here are the names of some faculties of Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys.

Make a topic about your college or institute, using this material. There is more additional material in Appendix:

Faculty of Non-ferrous and Precious Metals :

Some specialities: non-ferrous metals metallurgy; metal engineering and thermal treatment of metals; composite and powder materials; automation of technological processes and productions.

Faculty of Metallurgy Technologies, Mineral Resources Saving and Ecology:

Some specialities: metallurgy of ferrous metals; cast production of ferrous and non-ferrous metals; standartization and certification in metallurgy;

Faculty of Technology:

Some specialities: metallurgical equipment; press treatment of metals

Faculty of Semiconducting Materials and Devices:

Some specialities: material engineering and new materials technology; materials and components of solid state electronics; microelectronics and semiconducting devices.

Exercise 4. Arrange the jumbled text given below.

Evening Classes

1. The classes may be organized by the local education authority or by the Workers' Educational Association, and in them people find an agreeable social life as well as the means for pursuing their own hobbies more satisfactorily. All this, together with the popularity of amateur dramatics, can provide some comfort for those who fear that modern mass entertainment is producing a passive society.

2. The session for evening classes is normally from late September to the end of June (in some cases Easter), and when a definite course of study is being undertaken, it is most important that students should join the class at the beginning of the sessions in order to obtain full benefit from the course.

3. Apart from the organized classes mention must also be made of the privately arranged groups of people who join together for the pursuit of their hobbies.

4. Evening classes, each meeting usually once a week, are flourishing immensely, and not only those which prepare people for examinations leading to professional qualifications. Many people attend classes connected with their hobbies, such as photography, painting, folk-dancing, dog training, cake decoration, archaeology, local history, car maintenance and other subjects, some of them no less surprising than some of these.

5. Evening classes reopen every autumn for those who want to advance their career, to study for an examination, to follow up some special interest or to get more enjoyment out of their leisure hours. Men and women, old and young, professional and amateurs - all are catered for.

Oral Practice

Describing Feelings. Expressing Feelings. Character

Patterns

1. Describing feelings.

He is sad frightened sorry

She looks angry bored proud

feels puzzled excited worried

happy annoyed

2. Expressing feelings.

a) Congratulations and wishes

Congratulations! !

Many happy returns (of the day)

Merry Christmas!

(A) Happy New Year! C !

(My) best wishes to you ()

May all your dreams come true , !

Good luck! !

Enjoy yourself!

Have fun! ()!

Have a good time!

b) Sympathy

Things will come right. .

Poor thing! !

What a shame ! !

Don't worry. .

Take it easy .

Come on.

Things do happen

Let's hope for the best

c) Anger, irritation

How awful/terrible/dreadful/

horrible

It's outageous!

It's ludicrous! ,

How annoying! !

What a shame! ?

Shame on you! . !

How dare you . . . . . .

Leave me alone!

For God's/Heaven's sake! !

Exercise 1. Which of these patterns would be appropriate?

1. If you are sympathizing with someone in a grievous loss:

a) Hard luck b) Never mind c) I'm so sorry

2. If you are at a birthday party:

a) Congratulations! b) Many happy returns! c) Have fun

3. If you are consoling somebody on failing at an exam:

a) Take it easy! b) I'm so sorry! c) Don't worry

4. If a guest has spilled milk on your new dress:

a) How awful! b) Don't worry c) Shame on you

5. If you are congratulating your friend on his wedding.

a) May all your dreams come true. b) Have fun c) My best wishes to you

6. Congratulate your friend on moving to a new flat:

a) Have a good time b) Congratulations c) Have fun

7. Sympathise with a friend on something not very serious:

a) Poor thing! b) It's outrageous! c) Shame on you

Exercise 2. Learn the dialogues by heart and make dialogues of your own, using the patterns.

I

Kate - What a horrible morning! We were held up by the fog.

Ben - Wasn't the traffic awful this morning?

Kate - It was simply shocking. We had to wait for ages for the train.

Ben - How very annoying! Most annoying!

II

Peter - Hi, Susan.

Susan - Hello, Peter. You look so happy.

Peter - Oh, yes, I am. I'm on holiday.

Susan - Lucky you! Congratulations!

Peter - Thanks. I'm going off for a few days.

Susan - How nice for you! Have a good time.

III

Ben - Hello, Kate.

Kate - Hi, Ben. You look a bit sad.

Ben - Yes, I am.

Kate - Why, what's wrong?

Ben - I've left my bag in a bus.

Kate - What a shame. How miserable for you. Come on, things will come

right, you'll find it at a Lost Property Office.

Exercise 3. Which of the following are answers to good news and

which to bad news?

1. Thank goodness! 2. Try not to worry.

3. Don't worry. 4. Oh dear!

5. That's marvellous! 6. It's ludicrous!

7. Congratulations! 8. Well done!

9. What a shame! 10. Things do happen.

11. That's terrible. 12. It'll be all right.

13. Have a good time! 14. Let's hope for the best.

Just For Fun!

No one in the world has ever written just like you!

People have known for hundreds of years that the way you write can show what sort of person you are. Experts have written books on the subject. These experts are called graphologists. They study the size and slant of the letters. They also look to see if the style is simple or complicated.

You have your own special way of writing. No one in the world has ever written just like you. It is impossible to imitate exactly the way someone else writes. Handwriting experts often help the police to detect forgeries.

Is your writing big?

You want everybody to notice you. You always like to be in the centre of things and organise other people. You make big plans for your career.

Is your writing small?

You do not want people to notice you. You are reserved and keep your feelings to yourself. You are a very sensitive person.

Is your writing broad?

You always say what you think and you are not worried if other people do not like what you say. You are sure of yourself.

Is your writing narrow?

You like to have people and things around you that you know well. You like to do things that you know are safe. You do not like life to be very exciting.

Chapter 3

Unit 1

Non - Ferrous Metals

Text 1

The First Non - Ferrous Metals

Non-ferrous metals are the metals not composed of or containing iron. As it has been said before, copper was one of the first metals to be used. In its natural form, copper occurs in the ground as copper ore, a mineral. But this ore contains only 0.5 - 1 per cent of the metal. The rest is rock. The world produces 9.6 million tonnes of copper a year. This means that more than a thousand million tonnes of ore have to be removed from the ground and the pure copper extracted.

Most copper is extracted from a compound of iron, sulphur, and copper called sulphide ore. Hot air is blown into a furnace to separate the copper from the iron and sulphur. The iron and sulphur react with the oxygen to form iron oxide and sulphur dioxide, leaving molten copper metal. This copper, known as blister copper, is about 98 per cent pure. A process called electrolysis is needed to separate the remaining impurities. During this process a slab of blister copper is suspended in a solution of copper sulphate and sulphuric acid, where it acts as a positive electrode (anode). When electricity is passed through the solution, the copper in the anode is dissolved. The pure copper collects at the negative electrode (cathode) and the impurities fall below.

Copper is a good conductor of heat and electricity. We use it to make cooling utensils and all sorts of pipes for carrying hot water, both in homes and in industry. We also use it to make different kinds of electrical devices, such as lightning conductors and the electric coils in motors. Copper does not rust easily, so it lasts a very long time.

Such metals as lead and tin were widely known in Roman times. Lead is a soft malleable, ductile, bluish-white, dense metallic element, extracted chiefly from galena and used in containers and pipes for corrosives, in solder and type metal, bullets, radiation shielding, paints and anti-knock compounds.

Some Roman aqueducts still stand today because they were lined with lead and lead does not rust. Many thousands of tonnes were used in a single aqueduct. So much lead was used in water-supply systems that eventually the Romans suffered some lead-poisoning.

Tin was the fifth metal discovered by man. It is a malleable, silvery metallic element obtained chiefly from cassiterite. It is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion, and forms part of numerous alloys such as soft solder, pewter, type metal and bronze. For example,pewter, an alloy of lead and tin, was widely used in Roman times to make cups and dishes.

Task 1.

Phonetic Exercise

Practise after the speaker and learn to pronounce the words given below:

sulphur /'s/\ lf?/; sulphide /'s/\ lfaid/; pure /'pju:/; electrolysis /ilek'trolisis/; sulphuric /s?l'fju?rik/; cathode /koud/; anode /' noud/; galena /g?`li:n?/; corrosive /k?`rousiv/; cassiterite /k?`sit?rait/; pewter /'pju:t?/; aqueduct /'kwid?kt/.

Task 2

Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the words and word-

combinations given below. Use them in the sentences

of your own.

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; .

Exercise 2. Match the English words and word combinations given

below with their Russian equivalents.

1. to be composed of 1.

2. sulphide ore 2.

3. sulphur dioxide 3.

4. blister copper 4.

(. )

5. fall below 5.

6. electrical devices 6. ,

7. to last a long time 7.

8. corrosive 8.

9. radiation shielding 9.

10. lead-poisoning 10.

11. to cover metals 11. () ,

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions.

1. What is a non- ferrous metal? 2. What is most copper extracted from? 3. Why is copper so widely valued? 4. Were lead and tin widely known in Roman times? 5. How did the Romans use lead? 6. What are the properties of tin? 7. Why is tin widely used for coating other metals?

Exercise 4. Using English to define.

Aristotle suggested that a good definition should include a general classification of a term plus the specific characteristics that differentiate the term from other members of its class.

Definition formula: Term = Class + Characteristics

In the text given above there are some definitions of tin and lead. Using the pattern put the jumbled words into the right order to make a definition.

1. a process, is, to form, casting, a liquid metal, by pouring, into a

particular shape, into a mold.

2. a mineral, ore, is, can be extracted, a metal, from which.

3. pale-yellow, a, element, sulphur, is, non-metallic.

4. the basis, a star, sun, of, that, is, the solar system, is.

5. uranium, radioactive, metallic, silvery-white, is, heavy, element, easily

oxidized, a.

6. the, of, environment, is, ecology, study, the.

7. ground, a, on, fog, is, cloud, the, forms, that.

8. the, state, Bavaria, is, largest, southern, the, West Germany, of, in, part.

Exercise 5. Vocabulary in context: Choose the word that best matches

the meaning of the underlined word as it is used in each of

the sentences.

1. Calcium is obtained from the electrolysis of calcium chloride.

a) destroyed b) got

2. The initial research was not successful, so a second experiment was planned.

a) last b) first

3. He wanted to shield himself from the burning sun.

a) open b) protect

4. The space between the earth and the moon is a vacuum.

a) empty b) full

5. The earth absorbs the water from the rain.

a) gives off b) drinks in

6. All efforts were concentrated on the research programme.

a) devoted b) centered

7. Our natural resources are not inexhaustible.

a) limited b) endless

Exercise 6. Give a written translation of the following passages

Leaching

In some ores the copper is combined with oxygen. In a process called leaching, sulphuric acid is sprayed over these copper oxide ores, which dissolves the copper but not the rock. The copper and sulphuric acid form solution of copper sulphate, which is purified by electrolysis.

Carrie Everson

Ores contain a mixture of valuable metallic substance and worthless rock. An American schoolteacher, Carrie Everson, invented a way of separating the two in 1886. She ground up ore and mixed it with oil and acid. This produced a froth in which the metallic substances floated while the rocky materials sank.

Task 3.

Focus on Grammar

Modals of Necessity

The modals of necessity are must (which is also used to express strong probability); have to; be to; ought to; should.

Must expresses a very strong need:

You must do it.

You must not go there.

Have to expresses need because of certain circumstances:

She is ill and I have to visit her.

Be to expresses a planned or scheduled necessity:

The train was to arrive at 2 o'clock.

Should and ought to express moderate necessity, sometimes recommendation. These verbs are used to express advice or to make suggestions. They do not change:

You should (ought to) help her to do this work.

In technical instructions should is often used to mean `must' (particularly for warnings):

The electricity should be shut off.

Exercise 1. Insert the verb to be (to) or to have (to) in the necessary tense-form.

  1. It looks like raining. 2. You … to take your raincoats. 3. We …to leave Moscow on Monday. 4.You not …to tell them about it if you don't want to. 5.I did not expect that the worst …to happen. 6.You not …to discuss this problem with him before you get all the necesary instructions. 7.This very evening I … to dine with a gentleman whom I have never met before. 8.Stay here while he is busy. I don't think you'll …to wait long.

9. We …to work hard to achieve good results. 10. It was getting pretty late, and I …to leave in order not to be late for the last bus. 11. I did not know who …to be my roommate. 12. He …to leave for Bath that night but suddenly changed his plans. 13. He said you would …to go there alone. 14.The order came that we … not to leave the village before night. 15. Remember that you … to be at his place not later than ten.

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with the modal verbs expressing necessity.

1. He was disappointed because he . . . get up at 6 o'clock. 2. I have invited my friends for lunch. They . . . come at one o'clock. 3. You . . . make any noise after 11 o'clock. 4. Peter, you . . . clean your own boots. 5. I . . . be at the station at ten. It is very important. 6. You . . . eat between meals; it will make you fat. 7. I'm afraid I . . . go now. I . . . to meet Mother at the station. 8. It is very late. You . . . phone them now. 9. The situation was very dangerous. He felt that something . . . to be done. 10. You . . . eat so much bread; you will gain weight. 11. We . . . to leave on Friday. 12. Nobody met me when I came. I . . . to arrive by the ten o'clock train, but I couldn't get a ticket, so I was late. 13. Why . . . I suffer? What have I done? 14. It was too late to change the plan, and it . . . to remain as it was.

Exercise 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

Explain the use of the modals.

1. You must have a visa in your passport to visit Britain. 2. I promised I'd be on time, I mustn't be late. 3. Yesterday I was to meet her at the station at three o'clock but the train was late. 4. You ought to ask somebody for advice. It is a very difficult problem to solve it alone. 5. You haven't got much time, you must hurry. 6. I think you should accept this job. 7. You must stop smoking. 8. You should stop smoking. 9. It is a really good play. You ought to go and see it. 10. She had to move to another appartment because she hadn't enough money to pay for the old one. 11. I am sure they shouldn't get married. They are too different. 12. Do you really have to do all this work about the house? Yes, I'm afraid I have to because my husband is too busy at his work and comes back late at night.

Text 2

British Customs and Traditions

Pre - reading task

1. What do you know about English customs and traditions?

2. When is All Fools' Day celebrated?

3. What is connected with April Fools' Day?

April Fools' Day

April Fools' Day is a custom observed in many countries. On this day people play tricks, practical jokes. In Britain all must end on the stroke of noon. If anyone attempts a trick after midday, the intended victim retorts:

April Fools gone past,

You are the biggest fool at last!

A variety of theories have been put forward to account for this lively and persistent custom, but its origin still remains obscure. Below there are two examples of how Englishmen enjoy themselves on April 1st. They may change the idea of this nation.

A Practical Joke.

About forty years ago a tradesman of the town Dover had a good laugh at the expense of his fellow citizens.

On March 31 of the year in question, a large number of persons who owned dogs received a very official-looking document. It was marked “Urgent”, and it bore the municipal coat of arms at the head of the page. The document was typewritten and signed by the Mayor of the town. It ran as follows:

Owing to a sudden outbreak of hydrophobia, it has become necessary

to take special measures of precaution against this terrible malady and

to have all the dogs of the town vaccinated.”

The notice went on to say that all persons owning dogs were therefore summoned to appear at the Town Tall at 10 o'clock sharp on the following morning, April 1st, accompanied by their pets.

By ten o'clock on the day appointed, hundreds of dogs, muzzled and unmuzzled, and of all breeds and sizes have assembled and were barking and wagging their tails in the courtyard of the Town Hall.

Aroused by the hubbub, the astonished officials came to the windows. None of them knew what to make of it. When the owners of the dogs showed their summonses and demanded admission, they were informed that there must be some mistake, as no such notices had been sent out.

Gradually, it dawned upon the victims that some wit or other had made April fools of them. Most of them took it in good part and after a hearty laugh dispersed to their homes.

An April Fool's Day Hoax

On April 1st, 1957, BBC Television played an elaborate April Fool's Day hoax on the viewers of a normally staid weekly current affairs programme. It showed a film about a bumper spaghetti crop being harvested in Southern Switzerland, near the Italian frontier. Included in the film were shots of agricultural workers picking long strands of spaghetti from bushes. The presenter of the film commented on the uniform length of the spaghetti; the result, he said, of many years of patient cultivation by plant breeders. After the programme was over, hundreds of viewers telephoned the BBC. Some of the calls were from viewers who had enjoyed the hoax, including one who complained that spaghetti didn't grow vertically, but horizontally. Some of the calls were from viewers who wanted to know where they could buy spaghetti bushes. Mainly, though, the calls were from viewers who were no longer certain that spaghetti was made with flour and water and not grown. Such is the power of television.

Task 2.

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1. Complete the statements given below by choosing

the right variant.

1. The origin of April Fools' Day still remains . . .

a) in the dark b) obscure c) very clear

2. A large number of dog owners received an official letter . . .

a) on March 30 of the year in question b) on March 31, 1899

c) on March 31 of the year in question

3. According to this letter all dogs of the town had to be . . .

a) brought to the nearest veterinary b) vaccinated

c)taken out of the town

4. By ten o'clock on the day appointed . . .

a) nobody had come to the Town Hall

b) everybody had stayed at home because they didn't believe the letter

c) hundreds of citizens had brought their pets to the Town Hall

5. The practical joke played by BBC Television brought to . . .

a) many calls from viewers who wanted to buy spaghetti bushes

b) a big scandal c) much laughter from viewers

Exercise 2. Choose phrasal verbs given below to complete the sentences.

take measures against; go on; make of; send out; be over;

dawn upon; take smth in good part; play a hoax on; make with.

1. You should . . . the epidemic of flu.

2. I don't know what . . . your statement.

3. At last it . . . him that it was a practical joke.

4. The lesson . . ., you may go home.

5. The secretary was asked . . . letters of invitation.

6. On April 1, 1957 BBC Television . . . viewers but many of them didn't believe what they had seen and . . . the programme.

7. This cake . . . flour, butter, eggs and sugar.

Exercise 3. Look through the text and find the synonyms to the

following words.

1. merry 2. undertake 3. many 4. frontier

5. illness 6. finish 7. invite 8. good laugh

9. gather 10. be sure

Exercise 4. Translate the following proverbs and idioms into

Russian. Describe the situations when you can use them.

a) It would make even a cat laugh.

b) Many a true word is spoken in jest.

c) Every man has a fool in his sleeve.

d) To cap someone's joke.

e) To laugh up one's sleeve.

Exercise 5. What is a practical joke? Speak about a practical joke

you played on your friends or they played on you.

Oral Practice

Describing Objects and Their Uses.

Materials and patterns

Questions Replies

1. What is it like? 1. It is . . . with . . .

2. What is it made of? 2. It's made of . . .

3. What is it used for? 3. It's used for (+Gerund)

4. How long (wide,thick) is it? 4. It's 50 cm long (wide, thick)

5. Can I have a thing for . . .? 5. Oh, you mean . . . Yes,of course.

Materials: (it is made of . . .)

plastic, metal, gold, silver, copper, leather, silk, cotton, wool, nylon, china (porcelain), velvet, cord.

Shapes: (it is . . .)

round, pointed, oval, cylindrical, square, triangular, rectangular, elliptical, spherical, long, short, wide, narrow, thin, thick, curved.

Colours: red, blue, white, green, grey, black, brown, orange,yellow, purple, greenish, light/pale blue, dark/deep brown.

Other describing characteristics:

This river is 3,5 miles long.

The Mount Everest is 8,848 metres high.

This lake is 3 miles wide.

The pipe is 2 centimetres thick.

Or

The river has a length of 3,5 miles.

The sun has a surface temperature of 11 000 F.

In a description you can use such adverbs as:

This object is relatively small. Zinc is rather reactive. Copper salts are slightly blue. It is extremely hot in deserts.

Remember: Science demands objectivity and precision in descriptions.

Exercise 1. State what would make the following descriptions more scientific:

1. We used statistical approach.

  1. Steel is less corrosive.

  2. The surface temperature of the sun is 11 000.

  3. The river Thames is rather long.

  4. The Grand Canyon is 5 500 feet.

Exercise 2. Learn the dialogues by heart and make up similar dialogues

of your own using the patterns.

I

Kate - Excuse me, can I have a thing for cutting paper. I forgot the English

word for it.

Shop-assistant - Do you mean a razor?

Kate - Oh, no. It is about 15 centimeters long or may be longer. It is made of

metal with plastic handles. It is also used for cutting textile.

Shop-assistant - Oh, you mean scissors. Here you are.

II

Susan - Oh, dear! I'm afraid, I've lost my new pendant.

Ben - What is it made of?

Susan - It's made of yellow metal.

Ben - What shape is it?

Susan - It is oval and there is a blue stone in it.

Ben - Here it is. You've left it on the table.

Exercise 3. Work in pairs.

a) You are at the Lost Property office. You've lost your scarf (hat, bag, etc.). Describe it to the clerk there.

b) The clerk asks more questions about your scarf (hat, bag, etc.) and tries to find it.

Exercise 4. You are staying with an English family. Your room hasn't

got everything you need. Say, what you need. If you don't

know how a thing is called, describe it to your hosts.

Unit 2

Text 1

Precious Metals

Why are some metals so much more valuable than others? Gold, silver and platinum have been highly valued for centuries because of their scarsity, beauty and high qualities. The result of the rush for these metals was death, blood and tragedy.

When Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas in 1492, Spanish expeditions soon followed, and though they are much criticised for their cruelty, greed and treachery, the military achievements of the `Conquistadores' were remarkable. First they conquered Mexico and took away its valuable treasures. Seeking more land and wealth they invaded Peru, home of the Incas. Here they murdered the king and stole his vast hoard of gold - probably the greatest in the world. The natives were enslaved and set to work to win more gold. Later the Spanish conquered Chile and Bolivia, both of these countries being rich in precious metals, particularly silver.

To the metallurgists, the most exciting discovery made by the Spaniards was the finding of platinum in the silver mines of Mexico. At that time the new metal was regarded as more of a nuisance than of value. It could not be melted by any known method, though it was possible to make a very realistic imitation gold from it. Later it joined the group of precious metals and is now used for jewellery and in industry. Its high melting point makes it suitable for electrical contacts where the heat of sparks would melt other metals. In the chemical industries its resistance to corrosion is of great value.

Gold is the most malleable of all the metals. It can be hammered into sheets so thin that 250 of them would equal the thickness of a sheet of paper. It is also the most ductile metal. One gram of gold can be drawn into a wire 1.8 miles in length.

Gold is the least chemically active of all metals and does not combine with oxygen to form rust. This ability to resist corrosion makes it very durable, i.e. it may last for centuries. Pure gold is too soft to be used in jewelry so it is usually alloyed with other metals. The proportion of gold in an alloy is measured in karats. Pure gold is 24 karats. A 14 karat gold ring is an alloy of about 58% of gold and small percentages of copper and silver.

Silver is similar to gold in many ways. Like gold, it is very malleable and ductile and so it is also used for jewelry. Silver differs from gold in that it is more reactive and tarnished when exposed to the traces of sulfur in the air. (Silver sulfide, a black deposit, forms on its surface). Pure silver is too soft and so it is usually alloyed with copper to increase its hardness and durability. Sterling silver is 92.5 percent silver and 7.5 percent copper. Silver is used for coins and for photographic film because certain compounds of silver, such as silver bromide, reflect light. Silver is the best conductor of electricity known.

Task 1.

Phonetic Exercise

Practise after the speaker and learn to pronounce the words given below:

critisize /'kritisaiz/; achievements /?`t?i:vm?nts/; conquistadors /'konkisteid?z/; conquer /'konk ?/; platinum /'pltin?m/; Peru /p?`ru:/; Chile /'t? ili/; Bolivia /b?`livi?/; Mexico /'meksikou/

Task 2.

Lexical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the words and word-combinations

given below. Use them in the sentences of your own.

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; (); ; ; .

Exercise 2. Match the English words and word-combinations

given below with their Russian equivalents.

1. to critisize for 1.

2. remarkable achievements 2.

3. seeking more land and wealth 3.

4. to set to work 4.

5. to equal smth 5.

6. to increase durability 6. a

7. to reflect light 7. -

8. rich in precious metals 8.

9. the least chemically active metal 9.

10. to draw into a wire 10.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the precious metals valued for? 2. When did the Spanish expeditions set fot South America? 3. What did they find there? 4. What was their most exciting discovery? 5. Why is it easy to hammer gold into thin sheets? 6. Where is gold used? 7. What are the properties of silver?

Exercise 4. In the text given above you could find the fragments of the

definitions of gold and silver. Make them complete definitions.

Listed in the box are some guidelines for writing good definitions.

They are followed by poorly written definitions. Say, what is wrong

with them and correct them.

1. Identify the class. You may also use descriptions, comparions, examples.

2. Be precise. Do not only identify the class, but give the characteristics that differentiate this object or phenomenon from others.

3. Use negative definitions (like “An apple is not a vegetable”) when you think people have a wrong idea. But then follow it with a proper definition.

4. Be objective. Always remember about those you are speaking to. A child needs an easier and more detailed definition.

1. An apple is round, red and about the size of a fist.

2. An astronomer is a scientist.

3. Radium is an element.

4. A pizza is something really good to eat.

5. Helium is light.

6. Barometer measures air pressure.

7. Conduction transfers heat.

8. An agronomist is a person who practises agronomy.

Exercise 5. Translate at sight.

Metals and Non-metals

The 105 elements do not, fortunately, exhibit 105 completely different sets of properties. When the major properties are considered it is found that the elements fall into one or two groups, the metals or the non-metals. The contrast between the properties of these two groups is given below. It is not to be expected that all elements in one class will agree in every detail; some differ in one or two properties from the others of their class; these exceptions are indicated in brackets.

Metals Non-Metals

Physical properties

1.Solid at room temperature (mercury 1.Many are liquids and gases at room

is the only liquid metal) temperature

2.Have a high density (except 2. Density is usually low

potassium and sodium)

3.Can be moulded by pressure, i.e. 3. Solid non-metals are brittle

they are malleable

4.Have high melting points and 4. Have low melting points and

boiling points boiling points

5.Are good conductors of heat, 5. Are poor conductors of heat and

electricity electricity (graphite is the only good

conductor of electricity among non-

metals

6.Can be drawn into wire, i.e. they 6.Cannot be drawn into a wire

are ductile

Chemical properties

7. Have basic oxides 7. Have acidic oxides

8. React with dilute acids form- 8. Salts of non-metals do not exist

ing salts

9.Form positive ions 9. Form negative ions

10.Are liberated at the cathode 10. Are liberated at the anode

during electrolysis (hydrogen during electrolysis

acts as a metal)

The chemical properties are much more conclusive than the physical properties for deciding whether a particular element is to be regarded as a metal or a non-metal, e.g. if an element forms a basic oxide it must be classified as a metal. A basic oxide is never formed by a non-metal.

Task 3.

Focus on Grammar

Modal Verbs of Deduction

We use modal verbs of deduction to express degrees of certainty about the present and the past.

1. To express certainty we use must in the positive and can't in the negative.

He must be at work now. , .

He can't be at home now.

2. To express possibility we use can, could

They can be at work now. , .

  1. To express probability we use may, might

He may not be there yet. Bo, .

4. Modal verbs of deduction are often used to hypothesize

There may be a fifth force in nature that causes objects to fall at different rates.

Exercise 1. Rewrite these sentences using a modal verb of deduction

Example: 1. I am sure he is in Moscow now. - He must be in Moscow now.

2. I think he has finished this work. - He can have finished this work.

3. Perhaps she will help us. - She may help us.

1. I am sure he has been at the conference. 2. Perhaps Steve has got this grant. 3. He probably wanted her to marry him. 4. Perhaps she has been to London already. 5. I am sure James is a famous scholar. 6. He probably didn't want her to meet them. 7. I am sure she didn't work hard at school. 8. They have probably tried to get the tickets for this play. 9. I am sure they are in a hurry. 10. I think Brian has no money to buy a new car. 11. Probably Tom is coming to see us tomorrow. 12. I am not definitely sure what I am doing this weekend. 13. It's possible that I am going to Italy in July. 14. The director is away so perhaps there won't be a meeting on Friday. 15. I am sure he has got everything he needed. 16. If he walks from the station, perhaps he will come in time. 17. There is probably some misunderstanding. 18. My students are certainly at the conference now. 19. There is no doubt he is coming to her birthday party. 20. Is it possible that this old man is his brother?

Exercise 2. What can you deduce from the following situations?

Example: Look, John is standing under the clock!

He may be waiting for somebody.

He must have an appointment.

1. John has lost a lot of weight recently. 2. It's the beginning of your lesson and your teacher isn't here. 3. The children are making a lot of noise in the court-yard. 4. He has got an enormous sum of money. 5. Paul looks so unhappy. 6. Liz is wearing a beautiful dress. 7. There is nobody in the room. Where is everybody? 8. Ann doesn't want to see Bill. 9. He has got a chess board with him. 10. He is working so hard now.

Exercise 3. Use the necessary modal verb of deduction.

1. He seldom goes out he . . . be working hard. 2. Nobody answers the phone, they . . . have gone somewhere. 3. You . . . have asked me for this book, I have it at home. 4. His face seems familiar to me, we . . . have met before. 5. He began this work only yesterday, he . . . not have finished it. 6. Why don't you tell him about it, he . . . help you. 7. She doesn't want to see him any longer. They . . . have quarrelled. 8. There is a bell. Ann . . . be coming from the party. 9. She … not be working there. She is not a good PC user. 10. He is such a good student. He … not have done the work so carelessly. 11. They … be unable to get in touch with you. 12. He … be late. He is so punctual. 13. He … have learnt the news, he looks as if nothing has happened. 14. They … not have refused to take part in the discussion, they have been working on this problem for a month.

Exercise 4. Translate into Russian, paying attention to the modals of deduction.

1. He is so late. He must have taken a wrong bus. 2. Why hasn't he come to our meeting? He couldn't forget about it. He may have fallen ill. 3. Everything must have been arranged beforehand. 4. It may have been taken for a joke. 5. They can't fail to recognize you, you haven't changed much. 6. Look! People are hurrying along the streets with umbrellas up. It must be raining hard. 7. They must have been writing the test for an hour, they are looking so tired. 8. Don't be angry with her. She may have done it by mistake. 9. They couldn't have said anything of the kind. 10. If nothing prevents them, they can arrive tomorrow morning.

Text 2

Pre - reading task

1. Scan the text in 5 minutes and find information about the following:

a) the climates of the US;

b) the original inhabitants;

c) the American Revolution;

d) the reason for the US Civil War;

e) the US participation in the two World wars.

The USA

Land and Climate

The United States covers the central portion of North America and includes Alaska and Hawaii. It is the fourth largest country in the world. Because of its size and location, it has many different climates and a variety of geographical features. Large mountains, vast deserts, wide canyons, rolling hills, prairies, frozen tundra, extensive coasts, forests, tropical islands, wetlands, swamps, and other features can be found. The West Coast rises to the Rocky Mountains, which give way to a vast central plain that merges with the rolling hills and low mountains of the east.

Climates are as varied as the terrain. Humidity is often high in the east and southeast, while the west is drier. Most of the nation experiences all four seasons, with cold and snowy winters and warm summers. The southwest and southeast experience fewer variations in climate and rarely receive snow in winter.

History

North America's history before Europeans arrived is incomplete, but the original inhabitants had large empires and advanced civilizations. From the seventeenth century on, the Native Americans were displaced by Eorupean settlers who had come for riches, territory, and new world. British colonies (the Thirteen Colonies) were established on the east coast of North America. Spanish and French explorers also claimed large territories.

By the mid-eighteenth century, the colonists desired independence from Great Britain. The American Revolution of 1776 led to independence and a loose confederation of states. The Constitution of 1787 established the basic form of government as it exists today. Explorers and pioneers moved west and settled large areas of land. The United States acquired territory from France, Mexico, and Spain throughout the nineteenth century, expanding its borders from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.

In 1861, civil war broke out between Union states in the north and Confederate states in the south over issues of slavery, secession, and economic differences. Union forces, under President Abraham Lincoln, defeated the Confederacy in 1865 and reunited the country.

Although American troops were only involved in the last year of World War I, the United States was a major combatant in World War II and emerged as the strongest economic and military power in the world. Through its assistance to developing countries, the United States spread American values and influence throughout the world, which some nations welcomed and others did not.

American prominence declined in the 1970s because of the US defeat in the Vietnam War. This trend continued in the 1980s as other nations became more powerful, especially economically, but the United States remains an important member of the world community. In 1991, it led a coalition of nations in a war against Iraq to liberate Kuwait from occupation. It then participated in refugee relief operations and peace talks for the settlement of regional disputes.

The United States is an active member of the United Nations and is a key donor of international aid. It has never been ruled by a dictator and has always had free elections to determine its leadership. It considers itself the world guardian of freedom and democracy.

Task 2.

Comprehension Check

Exercise 1. Agree or disagree with the statements given below. Check

your answers while re-reading the text.

1. The original inhabitants of North America were not civilized.

2. The Americans unlike the British have a written Constitution.

3. Civil war was directed against slavery.

4. American troops were a major force in World War I.

5. American economic growth declined in the 1970s.

Exercise 2. Complete these statements by choosing the answer which

you think fits best.

- The American Revolution of 1776 led to

a) the disruption of the country;

b) Civil war;

c) independence.

- After World War II the United States

a) lost economic prominence;

b) emerged as the strongest economic power;

c) was completely desabled economically.

- American troops were involved in World War I

a) from the very beginning;

b) in its last year;

c) in the middle of it.

- American prominence declined in the 1970s because of

a) the US participation in the war against Iraq;

b) economic recession;

c) the US defeat in the Vietman War.

Exercise 3. Choose the answer that best matches the meaning

of the underlined word

1. Because of its size and location the US has many different climates

a) disposition b) presence

2. His story will be incomplete without these details.

a) unfinished b) inaccurate

3. The natives were displaced by European settlers.

a) turned b) removed

4. Pioneers moved west and settled large areas of land.

a) adjusted b) inhabited

5. The US has always assisted developing countries.

a) helped b) promoted

6. This scientist is known throughout the world.

a) in b) all over

7. He has participated in many important events and can tell you much about his experience.

a) played a part b) taken part

8. You are my real guardian. I know I can rely on you in any situation.

a) protector b) supervisor

Exercise 4. Decsribe Russia using the patterns from the text.

Oral Practice